Britannia I (1970) Index

Main Articles

The Coins of the IceniD.F. Allen1
The British Section of the Antonine ItineraryA.L.F. Rivet & K. Jackson34*
The Roman Theatre at CanterburySheppard Frere83
The Small Towns of Roman BritainMalcolm Todd114
Batavians and the Roman Conquest of BritainM.W.C. Hassall131*
Button-and-Loop Fasteners in the Roman ProvincesJ.P. Wild137
The Roman Villa at Boxmoor Interim ReportD.S. Neal156
The Camps at Ardoch, Stracathro and Ythan Wells: Recent ExcavationsJ.K. St. Joseph163!
The Military Situations in Britain Between A.D. 43 and 71Graham Webster179*
Roman Finds from non-Roman Sites in ScotlandAnne Robertson198
Cirencester: The Restoration of the Roman Town Wall, 1967-68Philippa R. Cullen227
The Date of Construction of the Saxon Shore Fort at RichboroughJ.S. Johnson240
The Veneration of Heroes in the Roman Army: The Evidence of Engraved GemstonesMartin Henig249

Notes

Mould for Bronze Statuette from Gestingthorpe, Essex by Prof. S.S. Frere (p.266)
A Romano-British Votive Relief from Witham by Prof. S.S. Frere (p.267)

Roman Britain in 1969

Sites Explored
by D.R. Wilson (268)

WALES

DENBIGHSHIRE - (1) Dinorben, Abergele, hill-fort (SH 968757): p.269.

MONTGOMERYSHIRE - (1) The Breiddin, Criggion, hill-fort (SJ 292144): p.269.

CARDIGANSHIRE - (1) Llanio/Bremia, Llanio-Isaf Farm, fort (SN 644564): p.269.

RADNORSHIRE - (1) Walton, Radnorshire (Hindwell Farm), Claudio-Neronian fort (SO 257605): p.270.

BRECKNOCKSHIRE - (1) Pen Milan, Modrydd, Roman road (SO 001237 - SN993224): p.270.

CARMARTHENSHIRE - (1) Carmarthen/Moridunum, original defences (SN 414203): p.270 & fig.2 p.271; (2) Dolaucothi/Luentinum, Cynwyl Gaio, work-huts & aqueduct (SN 664394): p.270; (3) Llandovery/Alabum fort, 2 construction phases in interior (SN 770352): pp.270/2;

GLAMORGAN - (1) Loughor Castle, Leucarum fort identified (SS 564979): p.272.

MONMOUTHSHIRE - (1) Caerleon/Isca Silurum, legionary principia (ST 340906): pp.272/3; (2) Usk/Burrium, pre-Flavian granaries (SO 379007): p.273.

SCOTLAND

ANGUS - (1) Stracathro, praetorium of fort (NO 618658): p.273.

PERTHSHIRE - (1) Carpow/Horrea Classis, interior of fort (NO 208179): pp.273/4; (2) Kincladie Wood, Dunning camp (NO 023152): p.274; (3) Parkneuk Wood, Innerpeffray Roman road (NN 916185): p.274.

ANTONINE WALL - Duntocher, Dunbartonshire, Antonine ditch (NS 481730): p.274.

DUMFRIESSHIRE - (1) Burnswark Iron-Age hill-fort (NY 185787): p.274; (2) Birrens/Blatobulgium well in courtyard of central range (NY 218753): p.274.

HADRIAN'S WALL

NORTHUMBERLAND - (1) Burradon Colliery, Longbenton Iron-Age homestead (NZ 269730): p.275; (2) Carrawburgh/Brocolitia principia (NY 859711): pp.275/6 & fig.3; (3) Housesteads/Vercovicium praetorium (NY 790688): p.276; (4) Chesterholm/Vindolanda fort principia and mansio in vicus (NY 770663): pp.276/7 & fig.4.

CUMBERLAND - (1) Milefortlet 16 (NY 082470): p.277; (2) Tower 16b (NY 078461): p.277; (3) Milefortlet 20 (NY 076412): p.277; (4) Milefortlet 26 (NY 026352): p.277.

NORTHERN COUNTIES

NORTH YORKSHIRE - (1) Beadlam Villa (SE 634842): pp.277/9 & fig.5; (2) Brough-by-Bainbridge/Virosidum fort, Antonine buildings (SD 937902): p.279; (3) Holme House, Mansfield villa (NZ 221152)[sic]: pp.279/80 & fig.6; (4) Malton/Derventio fort and vicus (SE 792716): p.280.

NORTH YORKSHIRE - (1) Castleford/Lagentium vicus (SE 427256): p.280; (2) Doncaster/Danum Old Guildhall, Frenchgate (SE 574034): p.280; (3) Kirk Sink Villa, Gargrave (SD 939536): pp.280/81; (4) Slack/Cambodunum vicus N of fort (SE 084176): p.281; (5) York/Eburacum legionary principia (SE 603522): p.281.

LANCASHIRE - (1) Ribchester/Bremetenacum occupation evidence outside NW fort defences (SD 649351): p.281; (2) Wilderspool, Warrington Roman structures (SJ 611865): pp.281/2.

CHESHIRE - (1) Chester/Deva, Old Market Hall, sacellum of legionary principia (SJ 405663): p.282; (2) High Legh Roman road (SJ 678845): p.282; (3) Middlewich/Salinae salt-works in vicus (SJ 705665): p.282; (4) Northwich/Condate, Castle Hill, Flavian timber buildings (SJ 656737): pp.282/3.

DERBYSHIRE - (1) Brough-on-Noe/Navio Flavian praetorium, Antonine principia & SE defences (SK 181827): p.283; (2) Littlechester/Derventio, Derby, mid-2nd C. occupation (SK 353375): p.283; (3) Markland Grips promontory fort, early-2nd/3rd C. pottery (SK 511752): p.383; (4) Melandra Castle/Ardotalia mansio and vicus (SK 010950): pp.283/4 & fig.7 p.285; (5) Scarcliffe Park 44 "native" sites c.2nd/3rd C. (SK 512710): p.284;

LINCOLNSHIRE - (1) Ancaster/Causennae, parish cemetery, 1st C. fort (SK 982437): p.284; (2) Lincoln/Lindum, Temperence Place, Chapel Lane interval tower (SK 977718): p.284; (3) Winterton villa 3rd/4th C. occupation (SE 911182): p.284.

THE MIDLANDS

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE - (1) Littleborough/Segelocum, Sturton-le-Steeple, corn-drying? kilns (SK 824825): p.284; (2) East Bridgeford/Margidunum 2 lead coffins outside S defences (SK 700415): pp.284/6.

LEICESTERSHIRE - (1) Leicester/Ratae Vaughan College, 3rd/4th C. occupation (SK 583044): 286.

RUTLAND - (1) Empingham, early-3rd - mid-4th C. occupation (SK 943077): p.286.

WARWICKSHIRE - (1) Mancetter/Manduessedum, 5 kilns of ICOTASGVS of mid-2nd C. (SP 326967): p.286;

HUNTINGDONSHIRE - (1) Castor, Normangate Field, early-2nd C. potteries (TL 115977): pp.286/7; (2) Godmanchester/Durovigutum, Pinfold Lane mansio (TL 246704): p.287; (3) Longthorpe, Peterborough, fort (TL 158977): p.287 (4) Stibbington, Church Lane, pottery kilns A.D. 325-360 (TL 085986): p.287.

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE - (1) Corby, Cottingham Road, Roman road (SP 866889): p.288; (2) Cosgrove villa (SP 795421): p.288; (3) Stoke Bruerne corridor villa (SP 755501): p.288; (4) Wellingborough, Hardwick Road, 6 pottery kilns (SP 875678): p.288.

BEDFORDSHIRE - (1) Harrold, Lodge Farm, mid-1st C. kilns (SP 933553): p.288.

OXFORDSHIRE - (1) Shakenoak North Leigh villa (SP 374138): p.288,

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE - (1) Bow Brickhill/Magiovinium, Fenny Stratford mid-1st - 4th C. occupation (SP 890336): pp.288/9.

HERTFORDSHIRE - (1) Baldock, Clothal End 1st C. settlement (TL 253340): p.289; (2) Boxmoor Villa, Hemel Hempstead (TL 038056): p.289; (3) Bromleyhall Farm 4th C. pottery/tile kilns (TL 418216): p.289; (4) Dicket Mead, Welwyn, 4th C. enclosure (TL 236161): p.289; (5) Netherwild Farm, Radlett, Aldenham, industrial debris 2nd-4th C. (TL 142012): p.289; (6) Park Street Villa early-4th C. tile kiln (TL 138039): pp.289/90

EASTERN COUNTIES

CAMBRIDGESHIRE - (1) Cambridge/Duroliponte, town W gate (TL 443592): p.290.

NORFOLK - (1) Brampton 140 late-1st - mid-3rd C. potteries (TG 224238): p.290.

ESSEX - (1) Chelmsford/Caesaromagus, Mosham Street, 2nd/3rd C. occupation (TL 709063): p.290; (2) Colchester/Camulodunum courtyard of the Templum Divi Claudii (TL 999253): p.290. (3) Gun Hill, West Tilbury mid-1st C. enclosure (TQ 655778): pp.290/91; (4) Wickford, Beauchamps Farm, late-3rd/early-4th C. well (TQ 762937): pp.291/2 & fig.8.

GREATER LONDON

THE CITY - (1) London/Londinium (i) Huggin Hill, (ii) Lower Thames Street, (iii) Ludgate Hill, (iv) Suffolk Lane: p.292.

OUTER LONDON NORTH OF THE RIVER - (1) Highgate Wood, Hornsey (TQ 282890): p.292; (2) Staines/Pontes, 69-71 High Street, 1st-4th C. occupation (TQ 036715): p.292.

SOUTH LONDON - (1) Southwark, London Bridge (TQ 327803): pp.292/3.

SOUTH-WESTERN COUNTIES

GLOUCESTERSHIRE - (1) Barnsley Park villa 2nd-5th C. occupation (SP 083067): p.293; (2) Cirencester/Corinium 1st C. road and later? cemetery (SP 021016): p.293; (3) Dymock, cricket field, 2nd/3rd C. occupation (SO 705311): p.293; (4) Gloucester/Glevum (i) Eastgate Street (SO 833184), (ii) 11-15 & 22 Southgate Street, forum (SO 832185), (iii) 10 Eastgate Street (SO 832185), (iv) Post Office telephone exchange (SO 830186), (v) 63-71 Northgate Street (SO 907143): pp.293/5; (5) Whitcombe villa late-3rd/4th C. pottery (SO 907143): p.295 & fig.9 p.294; (6) Wycombe, Andoversford, Roman land usage (SP 025197): p.295; (7) M5 Motorway, Roman settlements (i) Brookthorpe (SO 833125), (ii) Stoke Orchard (SO 913289), (iii) Upton St. Leonards (SO 866157): p.295.

SOMERSET - (1) Bath/Aquae Sulis, St. John's Hospital late-2nd-4th C. occupation: p.295; (2) Bradley Hill, Somerton, 3rd/4th C. buildings (ST 480303): pp.295/6; (3) Ashes Farm, Butcombe, Row of Ashes Farm, late-3rd/Mid-4th C. buildings (ST 508629): p.296; (4) Combe Hay 2nd-4th C. industries (ST 729612): p.296; (5) Gatcombe, Long Ashton, 3rd C. buildings (ST 526699): p.296; (6) Henley Wood, Yatton, octagonal Romano-British temple (ST 443653) p.296 & Plate.xxxv.d; (7) Ilchester/Lindinis, (i) Rectory Garden, S wall and gateway (ST 522224), (ii) Ilchester Mead villa (ST 5122222): pp.296/7; (8) South Cadbury hill-fort, timber buildings & Roman military equipment (ST 628252): p.297 & Plate.xxxv.a.

DEVON - Holcombe Villa, Uplyme, octagonal bath-house (SY 315928): p.297; Lundy Island, Beacon Hill, 3rd-5th C. round-houses (ST 628252): p.297; Seaton Villa outbuildings and 'Spartan' baths (SY 237909): p.297.

CORNWALL - (1) Crane Godrevy, Gwithian, 1st C. BC - 2nd/3rd C. AD occupation (SW 589426): p.297; (2) Nanstallon Fort/Statio Deventiasteno, Bodmin fort, dated AD 55/65-80 (SX 034570): pp.297/8; (3) Trebarveth, St. Keverne, 2nd C. stone ovens (SW 796193): p.298; (4) Isles of Scilly, Nor'nour, sub-circular huts (SV 944147): p.298.

SOUTHERN COUNTIES

DORSET - (1) Bradford Down, Pamphill, I-A and 2nd/3rd C. occupation (ST 977044): p.298; (2) Dewlish Villa mosaic pavement (SY 768972): p.298; (3) Dorchester/Durnovaria metal-working evidence (SY 691904): p.298; (4) Poundbury, Dorchester, Roman cemetery (SY 685911): pp.298/9; (5) Halstock Villa barn (ST 533076) p.299; (6) Lake Farm fort, Corfe Mullen, occupied mid-40's to 60's (SY 997990): p.299; (7) Norden, Corfe Castle, 'late' timber building (SY 956827): p.299; (8) Tarrant Hinton, Barton Field, building with tessalated floors (ST 927118): p.299; (9) Waddon Hill Fort, Stoke Abbott, barrack buildings (ST 450015): p.299; (10) Weymouth, Bowleaze Cove, L-shaped building (SY 701819): p.299.

WILTSHIRE - (1) Badbury Villa, Chisledon, late-3rd/4th C. pottery (SU 194809): p.299; (2) Barbury Castle possible Roman encampment (SU 147768): p.299; (3) Old Sarum, Stratford-sub-Castle, 1st-4th C. pottery (SU 134318): pp.299/300; (4) Wanborough/Durocornovium Neronian/Flavian foundation, graffito & tile stamps (SU 195852): p.300 & pp.312, 314.

HAMPSHIRE - (1) Basing, Common Plantation, R-B settlement (SU 650573): p.300; (2) Carisbrooke, Isle-of-Wight/Vectis 3rd C. aisled house (SZ 485882): p.300; (3) Linwood, Ellingham, potteries (SU 192101): p.300; (4) Portchester Castle/Portus Ardaoni, Fareham late-3rd - early-5th C. evidence (SU 624046): pp.300/301; (5) Sparsholt villa, room #7 mozaic (SU 415301): p.301; (6) Winchester/Venta Belgarum (SU 480295), (i) Castle Yard, (ii) Cathedral Green, (iii) Wolvesey Palace, (iv) Lankhills cemetery (SU 479303): p.301.

BERKSHIRE - (1) Appleford, 1st - early-4th C. occupation (SU 522935): p.301; (2) Bray, Hoveringham Pit, mid-4th C. industries (SU 913781): pp.301/2; (3) Cookham, Strand Castle Gravel Pit, drying-oven (SU 885841): p.302; (4) Long Wittenham, Northfield Farm, late-1st/2nd C, enclosures (SU 553953): p.302.

SUSSEX - Bardown, Ticehurst, iron mine (TQ 663294): p.302; Chichester/Noviomagus, Central Girl's School, Gallo-Belgic pottery 40-60AD and bronze belt-plate (SU 861048): p.302 & fig.10 p.303; Chilgrove Villa, Cross Roads Field, Brickkiln Farm, hearths and over 100 coins (SU 841136): pp.302/3; Fishbourne villa deep-water channel c.75AD (SU 839046): p.303; Westham circular table-top of shale (TQ 636045): p.303.

KENT - (1) Ash villa occupied mid-2nd - early-3rd C. (TQ 608650): pp.303/4; (2) Boxted villa Romano-British temple (TQ 852662): p.304; (3) Canterbury/Durovernum, White Cross Bastion (TR 149578): p.304; (4) Darenth villa detached bath-house (TQ 564706): p.304; [(5) missing!] (6) Springhead/Vagniacis, Southfleet, Roman road (TQ 617725): p.304; (7) Leysdown, Isle of Sheppey, hoard of 500 sestertii and asses: p.304; (8) Ramsgate, Isle of Thanet/Tanatus hoard of 27 sestertii: p.304; (9) Reculver/Regulbium, Herne Bay, Claudian fortlet (TR 227694): p.304; (10) Rochester/Durobrivae, High Street, town defences (TQ 744684): pp.304/5.

Inscriptions (305)

MONUMENTAL

  1. Wood Eaton, Islip, Oxfordshire - Triangular fragment of gold leaf inscribed with Greek lettering found on the site during or prior to 1968: ...] Θ Θ|[... A]ΔONA[E...|...]AΔONAE M [...|...]ΘΥISSSSTTT[...|...]ΘEEEE[....
  2. Caerleon/Isca Silurum, - Bath sandstone fragment found in 1969 north-west of the principia in the Vicarage garden: [I] O [M ...].
  3. Caerleon - Three conjoining fragments of Old Red Sandstone found just to the north-west of the principia in 1969: [I • O • M ET] G •‌[IMPERATOR]VM‌[ANTONINI] ET‌[COMMODI • A]VGG •‌[AEDEM • A • SO]LO •‌[RESTITVIT.]T • ES[V]‌[VIVS ...‌(line or lines lost)‌...] N • [...‌[L]EG • A[VGG]‌[P]RP • D[ • D].
  4. Caerleon - Fragment of Old Red Sandstone found in 1969 on the same site as #2 above: LEG II AV]G (?).
  5. Caerleon - Nine fragments on Bath Sandstone, eight of which join together to form a text, found near #2 above: ...] C|...]D[I]D[I]VS|... D]OMO FL •|...]RMI[....
  6. Caerleon - Fragment of Bath sandstone found in 1969 at the same site as #2, possibly part of inscriptions #2, #7 or #8: ...] • D [....
  7. Caerleon - Fragment of Bath sandstone found in 1969 at same site as #2: ...] ES|...] S.
  8. Caerleon - Two conjoining fragments of Bath sandstone found with #2: ...] IM [...|...] RIN [....
  9. Caerleon - Two conjoining fragments of Old Red sandstone from a tombstone found in the Bull Inn car park in 1969: VI[CTO]|R[INI]|> [....
  10. Caerleon - Part of an Old red Sandstone tombstone, damaged on all edges was found during pipe-laying in 1969 outside the north-west corner-angle of the fortress: ...]MATVNAC[....
  11. Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire - A thin flake of grey sandstone found in 1962/3 on the south bank of the Afon Cothi, south-east of the village: ...]AV[G(?)... or ...] MV [....
  12. York/Eburacum - Right-hand part of an ansate building-stone of sandstone built into the interior east wall in the south transept of York Minster: ...]C O L L E G I|...]BPBFGORDIAN; "[genio] collegi [... o]b p(romotionem) b(ene)f(iciarii) Gordian(i)".
  13. York - Magnesian limestone building stone with ansate frame built into the interior west wall of York Minster's south transept:
    COHVIIII
    OPVSF
    .
  14. York - Limestone grit tombstone re-used to cover an Anglo-Saxon grave aligned NE-SW beneath the south transept of York Minster: D • M [A]NT • GARGILIANI EQV‌PVBLE[X PR]A[E]F • LEGVIV AN LVI‌M • VI • CLA FLORENTINVS‌DEC • GENER • EIVS.
  15. Binchester/Vinovia, Durham - Buff sandstone slab found re-used in the north wall of the Saxon church at Escomb: BONO REI|PVBLICAE|NATO.
  16. Chesterholm/Vindolanda, Northumberland - Buff sandstone altar found in unstratified rubble near the fort's south gate in 1969: DEAB[VS]|[S]VIS MA[T]|[RIBVS ...|...|...|[V] S L M.
  17. Chesterholm - Buff sandstone building stone re-used in the wall at the northern end of the mansio courtyard: COVINI|> LEG VI V.
  18. Chesterholm - Buff sandstone building stone found in 1969 in the east wall of room-10 in the mansio: BER.
  19. Hutcheson Hill, Antonine Wall, Dunbartonshire - Buff sandstone distance slab uncovered during ploughing in 1969 on Cleddans Farm, between Duntocher and and Castlehill: IMP(ERATOTRI) C(AESARI)|T(ITO) AE(LIO)|HADRIANO|ANTO|NINO|AVG(VSTO) • |PIO • P(ATRI) • P(ATRIAE)|VEX(ILLATIO) • LEG(IONIS)|XX • V(ALERIAE) •: V(ITRICIS) • |FEC(IT)|P(ER) • P(EDVM) • III (MILIA).
  20. Old Kilpatrick, Dunbarton - Buff sandstone altar found in 1969 in the outer ditch near the north-east corner of the fort: IOM | COH I BAE|TASIORVM | C • R • CVI • PR|AEEST PVBLICIVS |MATERNVS PRAEF |C(VRAM) • A(GENTE) • IVLIO CAN|DIDO • > • LEG(IONIS) • I • ITALICAE | VSLLM.
  21. Chesterholm/Vindolanda - Cylindrical milestone of buff sandstone re-used to support a water tank in the vicus to the west of the fort, found in 1969. Most of the left-hand side of the text had been chiselled out in antiquity: [IMP CA]ES|[...] •|[...] E|[...] G|[...] B|[...] G|[...] •|[...] C.

INSTRVMENTVM DOMESTICVM
only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Lullingstone villa, Farningham, Kent - Fragments of painted wall-plaster found in 1949 below the site of the Christian chapel at the north end of the villa: [Α] ΧΡ [Ω].
  2. London/Londinium - Two parts of a tegula tile found in debris of the bath-house site in Huggin Hill churchyard; stamped within an ansate panel: P • PR • BR.