Britannia II (1971) Index

Main Articles

The Forum and Baths at Caistor by NorwichS.S. Frere1
The Excavation of the Roman Theatre at GosbecksRosalind Dunnett27
The Excavation of a Fortified Settlement at Walesland Rath, PembrokeshireG.J. Wainwright48
Pavements and Poverty in the Chiltern VillasKeith Branigan109
The Fishbourne StoryI.D. Margary117
The Roman Military DietR.W. Davies122!
The Fifth Year of Agricola's CampaignsNicholas Reed143*
Legio VIII Augusta and the Claudian InvasionLawrence J.F. Keppie149*
An Insect Fauna from the Roman Site at Alcester, WarwickshireP.J. Osborne156
Roman Building-Materials in South-East EnglandJ.H. Williams166
The Verulamium (1960) Hoard of 'Barbarous Radiates'Harold B. Mattingly196
Ironmaking in a Roman FurnaceHenry Cleere203!
Spoken Latin in Britain as Evidenced in the InscriptionsJ.C. Mann218
The Church at RichboroughP.D.C. Brown225
Late Romans and Saxons in SussexM.G. Welch232


A Relief of a Romano-British Warrior-God by Malcolm Todd (238)
A pottery mould fragment from Littlemore, Oxon by C.J. Young (238)
A Roman Coarse-ware Pottery Strainer from Brockley Hill, Middlesex by Stephen A. Castle (240)

Roman Britain in 1970

Sites Explored
by D.R. Wilson (242)


CARDIGANSHIRE - (1) Llanio/Bremia, Cardiganshire, fort baths (SN 644562): p.243.

CARMARTHENSHIRE - (1) Carmarthen - Llandovery Roman road, Margary#623: (i) Abergwili (SN 484215), (ii) Merlin's Hill (SN 453212), (iii) Nantgaredig (SN 491215): p.243; (2) Carmarthen/Moridunum amphitheatre (SN 419206): p.243 & fig.2 p.244; (3) Dolaucothi/Luentinum, Cynwyl Gaeo, gold-mine aqueduct (SN 664394): pp.244/5 & fig.3; (4) Llandovery - Castell Collen Roman road, Margary#623, Llanfair-ar-y-Bryn (SN 796379 - SN 803391): p.245.

GLAMORGANSHIRE - (1) Loughor/Leucarum, fort defences (SS 564980): pp.245/6; (2) Witton Villa, St. Lythans (ST 081713): p.246.

MONMOUTHSHIRE - (1) Abergavenny/Gobannium, 33 Castle Street (SO 299140): p.246; (2) Caerleon/Isca, Alstone Cottage, Insula XXIII (ST 337907): p.246; (3) Usk/Burrium defensive system antedating Neronian base (SO 379007): p.246 & fig.4 p.247.


ANGUS (1) Cardean, Airlie, interior roads of fort (NO 289460): p.248.

PERTHSHIRE - (1) Ardoch/Alauna Veniconum, defences and road of 'procestrium' or N. Annexe (NN 841101): p.248; (2) Carpow/Horrea Classis, S gate, SE annexe, & NE angle of fortress (NO 208179): p.248; (3) Strageath, Muthill, 2nd C. mortarium (NN 898181): p.248.

AYRSHIRE (1) Outerwards, Largs, fortlet with 2 Antonine phases (NS 232666): pp.248/9.

LANARKSHIRE - (1) Castledykes - Lyne Roman Road, S. of Carstairs, Margary#79a (NS 938444): p.249; (2) Wandel marching-camp (NS 944265): p.249.

DUMFRIESSHIRE (1) Birrenswark Hillfort, Middlebie, S gate defences (NY 185787): p.249.



NORTHUMBERLAND - Chesterholm/Vindolanda vicus, Northumberland Corbridge/Corstopitum fort Site XI excavations, Northumberland NY982648 Housesteads/Vercovicium fort, Northumberland Turret 33b, Coesike, Hadrian's Wall Whickham, Washingwells, Tyne & Wear <>Turret 51a, Piper Sike, Hadrian's Wall NY588653 Scalesceugh Tilery, Cumberland Chester-le-Street/Concangis fort, Durham Bowes/Lavatris fort, North Yorkshire Dere Street, Brompton-on-Swale, North YorkshireRoad resurfaced in the 2nd century. Branch-road active during the 3rd/4th centuries. SE225995 Holme House Villa, Manfield, North Yorkshire Malton/Derventio vicus, North Yorkshire Hasholme Hall, Spalding Moor, East Yorkshire Rudston Villa, East Yorkshire TA088667 Castleshaw Roman Road, Saddleworth, West Yorkshire Doncaster/Danum fort, West Yorkshire Slack/Cambodunum fort, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire Lancaster/Calunium fort, Lancashire SD474620 Quernmore Kiln, Lythe Brow, Caton, Lancashire Ribchester/Bremetenacum fort, Lancashire Astbury Camp, Cheshire Chester/Deva fortress, Cheshire SJ404663 Middlewich/Salinae settlement, Cheshire Northwich/Condate fort, Cheshire Littlechester/Derventio fort, Derby, Derbyshire Scarcliffe Park, Langwith, Second century pottery found here in 1970 (SK 512710): Shottlegate, nr. Hazelwood, Derbyshire Ancaster/Causennae, Lincolnshire SK983437 Barton-on-Humber, Experimental Kiln, Lincolnshire TA038234 Dragonby, Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire Heckington Fen Tile-Kiln, Lincolnshire Lincoln/Lindum, Lincolnshire SK978721 & SK973714 Winterton Villa, Lincolnshire Littleborough/Segelocum, Sturton le Steeple, Nottinghamshire Staunton in the Vale Minor Settlement, Nottinghamshire Wigston Parva/Venonis fort, Leicestershire Empingham Isled Barn, Rutland Chesterton, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire Hales Villa, Tyrley, Staffordshire
Trent Vale Fort, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire
Wall/Letocetum fort, Staffordshire
Lea Cross Villa, Pontesbury, Shropshire
Sharpstone Hill, Shropshire
Wroxeter/Viroconium, Shropshire
Huntsham Villa, Herefordshire
Malvern Link Potteries, Howsell, Worcestershire
Alcester, Warwickshire
The Lunt fort, Baginton, Warwickshire
Cave's Inn/Tripontium, Churchover, Warwickshire
Chilvers Coton Tilery, Nuneaton, Warwickshire
Mancetter/Manduessedum, Warwickshire
Metchley Fort, Birmingham
Castor, Huntingdonshire
Elton Villa, Huntingdonshire
Godmanchester, Huntingdonshire
Longthorpe fort, Peterborough
Orton Staunch I-A/R-B farmstead, Longthorpe, Peterborough
Ashley, Northamptonshire SP790916
Brigstock, Northamptonshire SP961858
Fotheringhay villa, Northamptonshire TL079944
Quinton, Northamptonshire SP775535
Thorplands, Northamptonshire SP789650
Weekley, Northamptonshire SP884818
Wellingborough, Northamptonshire SP875681
Bletsoe, Bedfordshire TL018586
Dunstable/Durocobrivae, Bedfordshire TL019217
Harrold, Bedfordshire SP933553
Shakenoak villa, North Leigh, Oxfordshire
Bletchley, Buckinghamshire SP844339
Bow Brickhill, Buckinghamshire SP893334
Gayhurst villa, Buckinghamshire
Little Brickhill, Margidunum, Buckinghamshire
Ashwell End, Hertfordshire TL259404
Baldock, Hertfordshire TL251340
Boxmoor villa, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire TL039057
Dicket Mead, Welwyn, Hertfordshire TL234159
Puckeridge Roman road, Standon, Hertfordshire TL388288
Burwell bronze hoard, Cambridgeshire TL584675
Brampton, Norfolk
Caistor St. Edmund/Venta Icenorum Mercury plaque, Norfolk
Hockwold-cum-Wilton pewter hoard, Norfolk TL753870
Bardwell pewter hoard, Suffolk TL935745
Hacheston industrial site, Suffolk TM311570 & TM314570
Long Melford Roman road, Suffolk TL863449
Chelmsford/Caesaromagus R-B temple, Essex
Sheepen Farm, Colchester/Camulodunum, Essex
Grays pottery-kiln, Essex TQ625787
Chequers Lane Roman cemetary, Great Dunmow, Essex TL626219
Harlow, Essex
Roman road, Claybury Hospital, Ilford, Essex TQ426912
Kelvedon/Canonium brine-works?, Essex TL865190
Lexden tile-kiln, Colchester, Essex TL983264
I-A/R-B farmstead, Wickford, Essex TQ762937
Brockley Hill/Sulloniacae, Greater London
Roman road, Lefevre Road, Old Ford, Greater London TQ371836
Roman occupation, Toppings Wharf, Bermondsey, South London TQ321804
Roman occupation, Montague Close, Southwark, South London TQ327803
Barnsley Park villa, Gloucestershire SP083067
27 inhumations at Cirencester/Corinium, Gloucestershire SP021015
Frocester Court villa, Gloucestershire SO021015
Gloucester/Glevum, Gloucestershire SO830186
Wycombe, Andoversford, Gloucestershire SO025197
M5 Motorway, Gloucestershire ST710959 & ST644866
Bath/Aquae Sulis, Somerset (sic) ST749648
4th-century buildings, Bradley Hill, Somerton, Somerset ST480303
Cattle Hill Villa, Bratton Seymour, Somerset ST667298
Catsgore, nr. Somerton, Somerset ST506265
Charterhouse, Somerset ST507564
Cheddar, Somerset ST460530
Gatcombe, Somerset ST526699
Ilchester, Somerset ST522224
Holcombe villa, Devon ST315928
Black Down, Dorset
Bradford Down, Pamphill, Dorset ST978043
Dewlish villa, Dorset
Dorchester/Durnovaria, Dorset
Inhumation cemetery, Poundbury Camp, Dorset
Lake Farm fortress, Poole, Dorset
4th-C. corridor villa, Tarrant Hinton, Dorset ST927118
Atworth winged corridor-villa, Wiltshire ST856665
Boscombe Down corridor-villa, Allington, Wiltshire SU206383
Durrington Walls R-B farmstead, Wiltshire SU149435
Stanton Fitzwarren villa, Wiltshire SU174901
R-B occupation levels, Wanborough/Durocornovium, Wiltshire
M4 Motorway watching brief, Wiltshire
Amberwood Inclosure pottery-kilns, Fordingbridge, Hampshire SU205136
Combley 3rd-C. villa, Arreton, Isle of Wight SZ538878
Roman crossroads, East Anton/Leucomagus, Hampshire
Scotland Farm tile-kiln, Hook, Hampshire SU742533
R-B 5-roomed farmhouse, Leigh Park, Havant, Hampshire SU727091
Roman settlement, Neatham/Vindomis?, Hampshire
Roman occupation, Portchester Castle, Fareham, Hampshire SU624046
Sparsholt villa, Hampshire SU415301
Winchester/Venta Belgarum, Hampshire SU480295
Bradfield pottery-kiln, Berkshire SU602738
4th-century occupation, Bray, Berkshire SU918781
Maidenhatch Farm villa, Pangbourne, Berkshire SU619739
4th-century coin hoard, Matthewsgreen, Wokingham, Berkshire SU803699
I-A/R-B settlement, Bishopstone, Sussex TQ468009
Chichester/Noviomagus, Sussex TQ861048
corridor-villa & bath-house, Chilgrove, Sussex SU841136
Roman well, Findon, Sussex TQ119097
iron-working furnaces, Holbeanwood, Ticehurst, Sussex
iron-works, Holtye, Sussex
Barham Downs enclosure, Kent TR212505
buildings of the Classis Britannica, Dover/Dubrae, Kent TR318414
Eccles villa, Aylesford, Kent TQ722605
Springhead/Vagniacis, Southfleet, Kent TQ617725
Upchurch Marshes, Kent TQ847696
Wye, Kent TR049475

by R.P. Wright & M.W.C. Hassall (289)


  1. Springhead, Southfleet, Kent - Part of a guilt-bronze letter A was found in 1958 between the suggestus and the cella of Springhead Temple I (TQ617725).
  2. Beauport Park, Battle, Sussex - Sandstone building inscription found in 1970 lying with other construction material collapsed onto a roadway south of buildings in the Iron-working site (TQ787147): ...AV]G•[...|...]E NOVO[...|I]VSSIT•VIL[...|C(VRAM)•A(GENTE)•BASSI[...|TI[....
  3. Cirencester/Corinium, Gloucestershire - Oolite limestone block found during trial-trenching in 1970 inside Insula XII (SP029016): ...A]VG[...|...]VIR[....
  4. Old Harlow, Harlow New Town, Essex - Parts of three guilt-bronze letters found at Holbrooks in 1970 (TL470127): a.) part of a letter A; b.) part of a vertical upright, perhaps of an M or N; c.) the vertical upright of a letter L.
  5. Caerleon/Isca Silurum, Gwent - Part of a Red Sandstone ansate building stone found near the entrance to the Comprehensive School sports-field in 1970 (ST335907); it probably originated from the fortress wall: COH•V[...|IVNI•M[....
  6. Caerleon - Most of an Old Red Sandstone building inscription found in 1970 near an old hedge outside the west corner of the fortress (ST334907): [>]GEMANI|[D]ANIMACVS F(ECIT).
  7. Chester/Deva, Cheshire - Five portions of a broken slate slab were found between the principia and the praetorium in 1968 (SJ404663); Three of the pieces could be fitted together to form a single block of text: a-c.) ...]MISSA•DIV[...|...]A•CASTRIS•QVA[...|...]CORVM•CLAVSE[...|...]CONTRA•REGIM[...|...]ORVM•FEM[...|...]S•PER•M[...; d.) IRI[...|VTO[...|PRI[...|M[...; e.) C|TV[....
  8. Chester - Building stone of Red Sandstone near the north entrance of the amphitheatre (SJ408662): XI; probably a quarry-mark.
  9. Malton/Derventio, Yorkshire - Part of a buff limestone dedication slab found in the debris of the Severan bath-house in 1970 (SE408662): [...]|I[...]|CANDIDVS]|PRAEF[•ALAE]|PICENTIAN|D•[D].
  10. Coesike, Turret 33b, Hadrian's Wall, Northumberland - Building stone of buff sandstone found within Turret#33b in 1970, in the second course of masonry (NY821706): LEG•VI•|VICTRIX|PIA•FID.
  11. Coesike - Another inscribed stone found in 1970 in the third course of masonry of Turret#33b: > GRAN - "The Century of Granianus (made this)".
  12. Chesterholm/Vindolanda, Northumberland - A silver lunula found in 1970 during excavations on site XXII of the vicus (NY770663): DEO MAPONO.
  13. Milecastle 51 - Turret 51a, Hadrian's Wall - An ansate building stone of buff sandstone found in the second course of masonry on the north side of the Wall (NY589654): > CAND[I]D[I]|CRES[CE]NT.
  14. Hadrian's Wall, Northumberland - A rough slab of buff sandstone found sometime between 1857 and 1886 somewhere along Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland: SVCABO|CVNOVINDVS.
  15. Carpow/Horrea Classis, Fife - three fragments of a red sandstone inscription found near the south gate of the fortress in 1969-70 (SO208179): a.) sculpted panel including a finely-detailed eagle head, a vine leaf and a bunch of grapes, uninscribed; b.) possibly LEG II AVG; c.) small ivyleaf stop and part of a letter L.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Chester/Deva, Cheshire - A lead water pipe about 4" (100mm) in diameter found in the south-western side of the courtyard in the Elliptical Building: [IMP•VESP•]VIIII•T•IMP•VII•COS CN•IVLIO•AGRICOLA•LEG•AVG•PR•PR - dated to the first half of 79AD.
  1. Chester - Many brick, tegulae, and pilae-tiles, all from the tileries at Holt, were found on the site of excavations at the Old Market Hall during 1967-9, some of which bore variations of the stamp: LEGXXVV.
  1. South Shields/Arbeia, Tyne & Wear - Part of a tegula roofing-tile unearthed during excavations at Arbeia in 1967, bears the stamp: COHVG[....