Britannia VII (1976) Index

Main Articles

The Roman Baths at Bath: the excavations of 1969-75Barry Cunliffe1
A Roman Timber Tower at Beattock Summit, LanarkshireG.S. Maxwell33!
A Roman Timber Bridge at Aldwincle, Northants.D.A. Jackson & T.M. Ambrose39
Soldiers' Burials at Camelon, Stirlingshire, 1922 and 1975David J. Breeze, Joanna Close-Brooks & J.N. Graham Ritchie73
Did Adminius strike coins?D.F. Allen96
A Workshop of Roman Sculptors at CarlisleE.J. Phillips101
A Romano-British Bust found at Sutton Mandeville, Wilts.J.M.C. Toynbee109
Reconstructing Poseidonios's Celtic Ethnography; some considerationsDaphne Nash111
A Note on the use of the titles Optio and Magister below the centurionate during the PrincipateDavid J. Breeze127*
Singulares and Roman BritainR.W. Davies134*
An Unnecessary WarMichael G. Jarrett145*
Tools and Techniques of the Roman Stonemason in BritainT.F.C. Blagg152
Enclosed Ambulatories in Romano-British Temples in BritainK.W. Muckelroy173
Belt-Buckles and Strap-Ends of the later Roman Empire: a preliminary Survey of several new groupsC.J. Simpson192
Tile-Stamps of the Sixth Legion found in BritainR.P. Wright224!
The western extension of Hadrian's Wall: Bowness to CardurnockG.D.B. Jones236!
Decorated Terra Sigilata at Montans (Tarn) from the Manuscript of Elie Rossignol at AlbiG. Simpson244


Biological evidence for the usage of Roman riverside warehouses at York by R.K. Hall & H.K. Kenward (274)
An Icenian coin-legend by D.F. Allen (276)
An antefix type of the Second Augustan Legion from Exeter by Paul T. Bidwell & George C. Boon (278)
The discovery of a Roman fort at Shapwick near Badbury Rings, Dorset by Norman Field (280) !
An Intaglio from Wroxeter by Paul Woodfield (284)
A late Roman Belt-Buckle from Corbridge by C.J. Simpson (285)
The Roman fort at Loudon Hill, Ayrshire by D.L. Kennedy (286) !
A Lavatory-Seat from Neatham, Hants. by Mark Redknap (287)
Robin George Collingwood Memorial Fund (1889-1943) (288)

Roman Britain in 1994

I Sites Explored
by R. Goodburn (290)


CAERNARVONSHIRE [GWYNEDD] - (1) Betws-y-Coed, Royal Oak Paddock Fields, river-terrace mistaken for fort platform (SH 795568): p.291; (2) Caerhun/Canovium, parch-marks of vicus (SH 777705): p.291; (3) Caernarvon/Segontium: (i) section across E fort defences, (ii) bath-house in SE corner of fort (SH 485625): p.292 & figs.2/3 pp.293/4; (4) Porth Felen, Aberdaron, lead anchor-stock (SH 145247): p.292.

MERIONETHSHIRE [GWYNEDD] - (1) Brithdir, Dolgellau, bath-house & fabrica of Roman Ordnance Depot (SH 773188): pp.293/6 & figs.4/5 pp.295/7; (2) Llanfor, new Roman fort at E end of Bala Lake (SH 938361): p.296; (3) Pennal, road from fort S gate to ford over R. Dovey at 712996 (SH 705001): p.

MONTGOMERYSHIRE [POWYS] - (1) Forden Gaer 2nd-3rd C. occupation S of fort (SO 208989): p.296.

GLAMORGAN - (1) Cardiff Castle: (a) early E building cut by pits c.70-90AD, (b) scattered 2nd C. finds, (c) post-holes of late-Roman rectilinear buildings (ST 181766): p.298; (2) Llanedeyrn, Cardiff: (i) hoard of 1094 coins (Valerian-Tetricus), (ii) late-3rd C. pottery kiln (ST 199813): p.298.

MONMOUTHSHIRE [GWENT] - (1) Bulmore, Christchurch, funerary monument of Bath Stone (ST 358914): p.298; (2) Usk/Burrium, via principalis and 3rd C. defences of fortress (SO 378006): pp.298/9.


ANGUS - (1) Cardean, Airlie, barrack-block 27x4.5m, granary 30x9m (NO 289460): p.299.

PERTHSHIRE - (1) Carpow, Abernethy, trench across principia & praetorium of fortress (NO 208179): p.299; (2) Cleaven Dyke, Meikleour, W of North Wood (NO 156408): pp.299/300; (3) Strageath, Muthill, fort: (i) 3 periods recorded at W gate (Flavian & Antonine I/II), all timber, (ii) 3-period timber principia (NM 898180): p.300

STIRLINGSHIRE - (1) Camelon: (i) mid-2nd C. pottery in "South Camp" (NS863807), (ii) stone cist burial of 2 soldiers with their weapons (NS 860810): p.300; (2) Fairy Knowe, Buchlyvie, defended Iron-Age homestead, 1st-2nd C. occupation (NS 586943): p.301; (3) Leckie, Gargunnoch, broch and dun, Roman finds (NS 693940): p.301.

ANTONINE WALL - (1) Stey Step, West Lothian, suspected fort (NS 972801): p.301; (2) Rough Castle, Stirlingshire, Military Way (NS 837798): p.301; (3) Westerwood, Dunbartonshire, extramural settlement S of fort, negative results (NS 761773): p.301; (4) Dullatur, Dunbartonshire, marching-camps (NS 746767): p.301; (5) Croy Hill, Dunbartonshire, early fort annexe (NS 734765): pp.301/2; (6) Kirkintilloch, Dunbartonshire: (i) 25 Hillhead Road, cobbling of Wall base (NS 659742), (ii) 50 Union Street, possible fort/annexe ditch (NS 650739): p.302; (7) Bearsden, Dunbartonshire, extensive investigations of fort and bath-house (NS 545721): pp.302-4 & figs.6/7.

"ANTONINE WALL (1) Stey Step (NS 972801), Nether Kinneil, Bo'ness, West Lothian: ground and aerial observation in 1973 suggested the existence of a fort c. 300 ft. square, with an annexe to the west on the line of the Wall. Pottery has been found. ..." (Britannia vii (1976) p.301) "ANTONINE WALL ... (4) Dullatur (NS 746767), Cumbernauld, Dunbartonshire: two known temporary camps were investigated. Aerial photographs had indicated that one rectangular camp lay within another, the northern parts obscured by housing. Excavation showed the two camps to be coincident on the west. The larger camp was the earlier; the smaller utilized part of the existing ditch and a clay bank had been erected to block off the disused part; it sealed a silt layer 15cm thick. The south-east side of the larger camp was c. 213 m long, the smaller 140 m. Both ditches were c.2.1 m wide by c. 0.9 m deep. ..." (Britannia vii (1976) p.301)

LANARKSHIRE [STRATHCLYDE] - (1) Bothwellhaugh, Bothwell, fort bath-house & lead pipe (NS 729578): pp.304/5, fig.8 & plate.XXVIa.

WEST LOTHIAN - (1) Cramond, Edinburgh: (i) only post-Roman finds in the Manse Garden (NT 191767), (ii) north ditch (NT 190769), (iii) 2-phase hypocausted building N of fort (NT 190770): pp.305/6.

PEEBLESSHIRE - (1) Meldon Bridge, Lyne, marching-camp defences (NT 204404): p.306.

"Meldon Bridge (NT 204404), Lyne: excavation of a Neolithic site between Lyne Water and Meldon Burn in advance of pipe-line trenching revealed the defences of a marching camp observed on aerial photographs taken in 1974 and lying south-east of the known 49-acre camp at Lyne.The defences were badly denuded, the diitch being reduced to a depth of 20 cm. A large shallow (?) cooking-hollow was found inside the camp." (Britannia vii (1976) p.306)



DURHAM - (1) South Shields ...

II Inscriptions
by R.P. Wright, R.S.O. Tomlin & M.W.C. Hassall (378)


  1. London/Londinium, Upper Thames Street (TQ 319808): lower part of oolitic limestone altar found 1975 re-used in riverside wall, with item#2: [...]M ‌ [...] VETVS‌[T]ATE CONLABSVM ‌ AQVILINVS AVG♣ ‌ LIB ET MERCATOR ‌ ET AVDAX ET GRAEC♣ ‌ RESTITVER. p.378 & plate.XXXV.
  2. ibid. oolitic limestone altar, found with item#1: IN HDD • M ♣ MARTIAN‌NIVS PVLCH‌ER V C LEG ‌ AVGG ♣ PRO ‌ PRAET TEMPLVM ‌ ISIDIS C[...]‌TIS VETVSTATE ‌ COLLABSVM ‌ RESTITVI PRAE‌CEPIT. pp.378/9 & plates.XXXVI-XXXVII.
  3. Chichester/Noviomagus, West Sussex (SU 859049): fragment of Purbeck marble slab found 1974 in Roman public bath-house, with item#4: either [...]G‌[...] or [...]‌S[...]. p.379.
  4. ibid. Purbeck marble slab fragment, found with item#3: ... FI... NE.... pp.379/380.
  5. ibid., Central Girls' School, Chapel Street (SU 861048): fragment of limestone found unstratified in 1969, re-used as paving stone: ...DEFG... ...OI.... p.380.
  6. Catterick Bridge/Cataractonium, Yorkshire (SE 225992): left side of buff-sandstone gravestone found in 1959 re-used as door-sill in 4th C. bath-house: ♠ M ♠. p.380 & plate XXXVIIIa.
  7. Piercebridge, Co. Durham (NZ 2109 1565): rectangular base of buff-sandstone found in 1975 in vicus outside fort: D ‌ E X O R <D> M ‌ E X O R D. pp.380/381 & plate.XXXVIIIc.
  8. Throckley, Northumberland, Hadrian House (NZ 158669): 20 buff-sandstone ashlars from Wall between T.10a and T.10b re-used in Old People's Home, three of them marked: I, II and +; probably quarry-marks. p.381.
  9. West of T.29a (NY 8836 7130): centurial stone broken on left: > NΛS. p.381.
  10. ibid. (NY 8835 7130): building-stone: >LAB(E)RI. p.381.
  11. ibid. (NY 8839 7130): buff-sandstone building-stone found 1972 in footings of Hadrian's Wall: X. p.381.
  12. ibid. (NY 8820 7138): building-stone: X. p.381.
  13. ibid. (NY 8818 7140): building-stone: V. p.381.
  14. Hare Hill, Cumberland/Cumbria (NY 564646): buff-sandstone ansate building-stone found in three pieces in 1975 between MC.53 and T.53a: COH III > ‌ M SOLLI IVLIANI. pp.381/2.
  15. Bothwellhaugh, Hamilton, Lanarkshire/Strathclyde (NS 729578): grey-sandstone slab fragment found 1975 in rubble of bath-house outside fort: : COH.... p.382 & plate.XXXVIIIb.
  16. Cramond, Edinburgh, Midlothian (NT 190770): grey-sandstone block, possibly an altarstone, found in 1975 in a Roman/Medieval rubbish deposit: PRO‌CAR. p.382.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Yeaveley, Ashbourne, Derbyshire (SK 185399): lead pig, face 495x82mm, base 585x160mm, height 95mm, wight 59.42kg (131 lbs), found in 1975 a mile N of the Littlechester Rocester road, with item#18: top face: ♣SOCIORVM♠LVTVD♠, front: BRIT♣EX ARG. pp.382/3.
  2. ibid. lead pig found 1975 with item#17, same dimensions: ♣SOCIORVM♠LVTVD♠, front: [BR]IT♣EX ARG. p.383.
  1. Chesterton/Durobrivae, Huntingdonshire (TL 123967): part of silver cup or bowl iscribed on rim and base, found 1975 as part of 4th-C. treasure, with items#33-35: Rim: αXPω SANCTVM ALTARE TVVM D αXPω OMINE SVBINIXVS HONORO, Base: PVBLIANVS. p.385.
  1. Leicester/Ratae, Leicestershire (SK 579041): oblate lead seal found 1975 in West End development area: C[ohors] I AQ[vitanorvm]. p.386.
  1. ibid., St. Nicholas Circle (SK 583044): oblong lead sealing found 1973 in 2nd C. Roman drain S of forum: obverse: L[eg] XX V[aleria] V[ictrix], reverse: IVΛQ. p.387.
  1. Wallsend/Segedunum, Tyne & Wear (NZ 300660): fragment of imbrex tile found unstratified in 1975: ...EG VI V. p.389.
  2. ibid. fragment of tegula tile found unstratified in 1975: AL[a] I A[stvrvm]. p.389.
  1. Chesterholm/Vindolaanda, Northumberland (NY 769663): twenty-three stamped bricks and two tegulae tiles, all stamped with all or part of the legend: LEG VI V. p.390.
  1. Usk/Burrium, Monmouthshire/Gwent (SO 378006): mortarium waster found 1973 in pit within Neronian fortress: PII]ΛVIIIS CONTVBRNIO MIISSORIS. pp.391/2.