Britannia XII (1981) Index

Main Articles

Apollo, Beasts and Seasons, Some Thoughts on the littlecote MosaicJ.M.C. Toynbee1
Princeps as a Title for ad hoc CommandersM.P. Speidel7*
Possible Standard Units of Meaasurement in Roman Military PlanningC.V. Walthew15*
Some New and Some Forgotten Stamped Skillets, and the Date of P. Cipius PolybiusJ. Bennett & R. Young37
The Romano-British Site at Brockworth, Glos.B. Rawes45
The Roman Occupation of the Central FenlandT.W. Potter79!
Hadrian's Wall: The Limiting Ditches in the Cardurnock PeninsulaR. Bellhouse135!
Fortlets on the Antonine Wall at Seabegs Wood, Kinneil and CleddansL.J.F. Keppie & J.J. Walker143!
An Additional Classification of Granaries in Roman BritainE.W. Black163
The Kingscote Wall PaintingsE.J. Swain & R.J. Ling167
The Excavation of a Romano-British Farmstead and Cemetery on Bradley Hill, Somerton, SomersetR. Leech177
Model Objects from Military Areas of BritainM. Green253
Roman Circular Lead Tanks in BritainC.J. Guy271
Bone-Working at ColchesterN. Crummy277


Hyginus and the First Cohort by Prof. Eric Birley (287)
An Unusual Brooch from Colchester by Nina Crummy (287)
Three East Gaulish brooches found in Britain by Prof. Patrick Galliou (288)
The Neronian Stamped Tile from Little London, Near Silchester by Jillian Greenaway (290)
Further Thoughts on Fourth-Century Mosaics by Dr. roger Ling (292)
a Note on the Cognomina of Legio XX by Robert McPake (293)
A Late-Roman Cemetery at West Hill, Winchester by Kenneth E. Qualmann (295)
A Legionary Cuirass-Hinge from the Great Casterton Fort by Prof. Malcolm Todd (297)
A Note on the Street-Plan and Early Growth of Roman Amiens by Dr. C.V. Walthew (298)
A Roman Pottery Money Box from Lincoln by A.J. White (302)
A Find of Roman Scale Armour from Carpow by J.P. Wild (305)
Corrections to 'Facts and Theories on Hadrian's Wall' by Dr. Grace Simpson (306)
Corrections to Corrections by Charles Daniels (308)
A Graffito from La Graufesenque: Corrigendum by Anthony King (311)

Roman Britain in 1980

I Sites Explored
by F.O. Grew (313)


GWYNEDD - (1) Capel Eithin, Gaerwen, Anglesey, possible square temple (SH 4899 7270): p.314 & fig.2 p.315; (2) Holyhead, Anglesey, apsidal building (SH 212821): p.314.

CLWYD - (1) Prestatyn, Melyd Avenue, Flintshire, 1st-3rd C. pottery within fort (SJ 062817): pp.314/5; (2) Chester - Caernarvon Roman road, Iter XI: Margary 67a, E of St. Asaph (SJ 0609 7471), Margary 67b, W of St Asaph: (i) to ford of R. Dulas (SH 9459 7443 - 852754 - 9011 7484), (ii) along B5831 (SH 836752), (iii) to (SH 828746), (iv) to (SH 823736), (v) along modern road (SH 819731), (vi) to (SH 799717), (vii) to Conway ford at Tal-y-Cafn (SH 787717): p.315.

POWYS - (1) Collfryn, Llansantffraid Deytheur, Montgomeryshire, 2nd-4th C. pottery (SJ 222173): p.315.

DYFED - (1) Carmarthen/Moridunum, 110 Priory Street, Carmarthenshire, early-2nd to late-3rd C. buildings in vicus (SN 4166 2048): pp.315/6; (2) Llawhaden, Pembrokeshire, I-A/R-B settlements: (i) Drim (SN 067194), (ii) Bodringallt (SN 076194): p.316.

SOUTH GLAMORGAN - (1) Cardiff Castle: (i) first fort c.55-60 to c.75-90, (ii) second fort rampart sealed samian bowl of c. 90-110AD (ST 181766): p.316; (2) Kold Knap, Barry, 2nd-late-4th C. building (SO 0993 6648): p.316; (3) Cowbridge: (i) Bear Hotel (SS 9943 7483), (ii) 14 High Street (SS 9954 7462): pp.316/7.

GWENT [MONMOUTHSHIRE] - (1) Caerleon/Isca, Roman Gates, Backhall Street, excavations (ST 3402 9080): p.317 & figs.3/4 p.318.


SCOTLAND - (1) Roman road: (i) Dumbuck, Strathclyde (NS423743), (ii) little White Hill, Strathclyde (NS 439782), (iii) Bochastle fort, Central (NN 623089), (iv) Ruthill Water, Tayside (NN 677143) p.317.

TAYSIDE - (1) Cargill, Perthshire, fort defences (NO 166379): p.319; (2) Strageath, Muthill, Perthshire, 3-phase fort (NN 898180): p.319; (3) Westerton, Muthill, Perthshire, watch-tower with Punic ditch (NN 873146): p.319.

ANTONINE WALL - (1) Kinneil, Bo'ness and carriden, fortlet ditches (NS 977803): pp.319/320; (2) Falkirk, Central, Kemper Avenue, line of Wall (NS 892795): p.320; (3) Bar Hill, Kirkintilloch, tribunal of fort principia (NS 708759): p.320; (4) Hillhead, Kirkintilloch, Wall line (NS 663743 - 666745): p.320; (5) Buchley, Strathclyde, camp defences (NS 595720): p.320; (6) Summerston, Strathclyde, temporary-camps (NS 574723): p.320; (7) Bearsden, New Kilpatrick, fort bath-house excavated (NS 545721): pp.320/21; (8) Duntocher, Old Kilpatrick, Wall course (NS 480730 - 482730): p.321.

LOTHIAN - (1) Cramond, Edinburgh, excavations E of fort (NT 192768): p.321; (2) Elginhaugh, Dalkeith: (i) Dere Street (NT 3196 6735 - 3208 6733), (ii) continues as via principalis of fort (NT 321673): p.321.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

II Inscriptions
by M.W.C. Hassall & R.S.O. Tomlin (369)


  1. London/Londinium, 6-8 Crosswall EC3 (TQ 335810): oolitic-limestone fragment found 1980 re-used in bastion foundation: ...XII ...VS F C. p.369.
  2. ibid., 25-25 Ironmonger Lane EC2 (TQ 325812): mhite-marble fragment found 1980 in late-Saxon pit: ...LI... ...LLIVS. p.369.
  3. Hayling Island, Hampshire (SU 724029): limestone fragment found 1980 re-used as packing in Saxon post-hole on site of I-A/R-C temple: ...EVIAN... ...EG VIII.... p.369.
  4. Tarrant Hinton, Hampshire (ST 927118): sandstone block in two pieces found 1980 in well of Roman villa: CVP VEP[...D]ECESSIT ΛNNO XXXVIIII ‌ TVSCO ET BASSO COS VII KAL SEPTEMB. pp.369/370.
  5. Uley, Gloucestershire (ST 789996): oolitic limestone altar base found 1978 re-used as step in 4th C. Romano-British temple, work being carried out in the 5th C.: SEARIGILLVSSEARIGISFEC • ...OVERNIVSEYXOSIFMSLMT. p.370 & plates.XXXb & XXXI.
  6. Bath/Aquae Sulis, Avon, Roman Baths (ST7564): rectangular lead sheet defixio inscribed both sides found 1979 in the hot spring of the Kings Bath, with items #7 - #9: D]eae Suli donavi[... arg‌entiolos sex quos perd[idi ‌ a nomin[i]bus infrascript[is ‌ deae exactura est ‌ Senicianus et Saturni<i>nus <sed> ‌ et Ann[i]ola carta picta perscri[pta • An[i]ola ‌ Seninianus ‌ Saturninus. pp.370-2 & fig.19.
  7. ibid.: irregular lead defixio found 1979 with items #6, #8 & #9: Severa Dracontius Spectatus Innocentius Senicio Candidianus (Si)mplicius Belator Surilla Austus Carinianu(s). p.372 & fig.20 p.373.
  8. ibid.: rectangular lead defixio inscribed front and rear found 1979 with items #6, #7 & #9: Docilianus Bruceri (filius) deae sanctissim(a)e Suli devoveo eum [q]ui caracellam meam involaverit si vir si femina si servus si liber ut [..]um dea Sulis maximo letum [a]digat nec ei somnum permit • tat nec natos nec nascentes do[ne]c caracallam meam ad templum sui numinis per[t]ulerit. pp.372-5 & figs 21/22 pp.376/7.
  9. ibid.: rectangular lead defixio found 1979 with items #6 - #8: Uricalus Do[c]ilosa uxor sua ‌ Docilis filius suus et Docilina ‌ Decentinus frater suus Alogiosa ‌ nomina <a> eorum qui iuraverunt ‌ <qui iuaverunt> ad fontem deae Suli(s) ‌ prid(i)e idus Apriles quicumque illic per‌iuraverit deae Suli facias illum sanguine suo illud satisfacere. pp.375 & fig.23 p.378.
  10. Ivy Chimneys, Witham, Essex (TL 811136): bronze letter found 1979 in late-roman context within Romano-British temple: V. p.379.
  11. Caerleon/Isca, Gwent/Monmouthshire (ST 340906): green-sandstone fragment found 1978 in legionary bath-house: ...ICVS... ...ICIA... ...T.... p.379.
  12. Carlisle/Luguvalium, Cumbria/Cumberland (NY 396561): red-sandstone altar fragment found 1980 unstratified in Annetwell Street: ... ...NIA...A. p.379.
  13. ibid.: red-sandstone relief fragment: ...NO... ...AIR... ...VS • ...D.... p.379 & plate.XXXIIa.
  14. Chesterholm/Vindolanda, Northumberland (NY 770663): buff-sandstone building-stone with relief of a boar found 1980 re-used in fort wall: VEXLΛ LEGXXV VFEC . p.380.
  15. ibid.: buff-sandstone slab fragment found within the fort: ...DEM..., or ...REM.... p.380.
  16. ibid.: buff-sandstone tombstone fragment found 1980 re-used in fort wall: D♠M♥ ...LIAE ...IAE .... p.380.
  17. Walltown, Northumberland (NY 675664): buff-sandstone building-stone found 1980 near Turret 45a: COH V > VΛL RVFINI. p.380.
  18. Greenhead, Northumberland (NY 6575 6590): buff-sandstone building-stone found built into garden wall c.150 m S. of Hadrian's Wall between T.46a & T.46b.: COH VI >: LOVSI SVAVIS. p.380.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. AVON [SOMERSET] Bath/Aquae Sulis (ST7565): pewter patera found 1979? in reservoir of Roman Baths: DEΛ<&lLambda;> SVLI MINERV[A]E. p.381.
  1. DURHAM Pittington Farm (NZ3344): circular lead sealing found 1980, decorated on the obverse by an eagle on a plinth text on rear: ALE SAB. p.383 & fig.25 p.384.

Of great interest is the hoard of 33 silver spoons, 31 of which were inscribed, found at Thetford in Norfolk (TL 866849) in 1979, which were just part of a large treasure hoard. The inscriptions on the spoons take one of three general themes: (a) dedications to the god Faunus in various guises (items #66-85); Faunus Andicrose (2), Faunus Ausecus (2), Faunus Blotugus (5), Faunus Cranus (3), Faunus Medigenus (4), Faunus Narius (3), Faunus Saturnius (1). (b) dedications with personal names (items #86-93), of the form: [name] VIVAS. (c) three spoons bearing mottos; (QVI) PERSEVERAVIT VIVAS (item #94), VTI FELIX (item #95) & VIR BONE VIVAS (item #96). Also found with the spoons were two gold rings, inscribed in Greek; YNΔ (item #97) & IΛΩ (item #98).