Britannia XIII (1982) Index

Main Articles

Emperors, Frontiers, and Foreign Relations, 31 B.C. to A.D. 378J. Millar1
The Roman Tilery at St. Oswald's Priory, GloucesterC.M. Heighway & A.J. Parker25
Excavations and Finds from The Lanes, CarlisleM.R. McCarthy, T.G. Padley & M. Henig79
The Antonine Wall 1960-1980L. Keppie91*
Roman Lead-Mining on Mendip and in North WalesG. Clement Whittick113
The Origins of Some Major Romano-British TownsP. Crummy125
The Bignor VillaS. Frere135
The Roman Villa at WoodchesterG. Clarke197
Chemical Analysis of Hunt Cups and Allied Wares from BritainA. Anderson, M.G. Fulford, H. Hatcher & A.M. Pollard229
Four Bronze Figurines from the Trinovantian CivitasP.J. Drury & N.P. Wickenden239
The Vindolanda HorseJ.M.C. Toynbee & A. Wilkins245
The Province of VelantiaA. Dornier253*
Fifth-Century FactsP. Bartholomew261
Evidence for Roman London Bridge?G. Milne271
A New Relief showing Claudius and Britannia from AphrodisiasK.T. Erim277
The Solway Frontier: Interim Report 1976-81G.D.B. Jones283!


Graffito Drawing of a Pharos by Gerald Brodribb (299)
The Roman Theatre at Colchester by Philip Crummy (299)
On AE, 1977, 506 by D. Fishwick (302)
A Roman Iron Cautery from Verulamium by A.G. Gilson (303)
Salt Production in the Roman Fenland by David Gurney (304)
Recent Discoveries of the Roman Period at the Noah's Ark Inn, Frilford, South Oxfordshire by Richard Hingley (305)
A Roman Silver Spoon from Helpston, Cambridgeshire by Catherine Johns (309)
Two Brooches from Stonea, Cambs., and Bicester, Oxon, and the Origin of the Aesica Brooch by D.F. Mackreth (310)
Distinguishing between the Pes Monetalis and the Pes Drusianus: some problems by Martin Millett (315)
Graffiti from Skeleton Green by Clive Partridge (325)
The Brittones Anavionenses by A.L.F. Rivet (321)
An Early Intaglio found near Cirencester by Steve Trow (322)
A Romano-British Sculpture from Well, North Yorkshire by Percival Turnbull (324)

Roman Britain in 1981

I Sites Explored
by N.B. Rankov (328)


GWYNEDD - (1) Holyhead Mountain, Anglesey, late-4th C. 18' square tower (SH 2815 8295): p.328; (2) Llyn Hendref, Anglesey, R-B bee-hive quern (SH 395765): p.328; (3) Pen Bryn yr Eglwys, Carmel Head, Anglesey, possible watch-tower (SH 2930 9243): p.328.

CLWYD - (1) Pentre Farm, Flint, buildings & inhumation burials (SJ 254723): p.329; (2) Chester - Caernarfon Roman road, Iter XI, Margary#67a, Pen-y-Bryn Farm, Betws-yn-Rhus, section across road (SH 8299 7458): p.329; (3) Ruthin, Denbighshire, Wilderspool/Holt Ware from late-1st to mid-2nd C. (SJ 1288 5811): p.329.

POWYS - (1) Collfryn, Llansantffraid Deytheur, I-A/R-B hillslope enclosure (SJ 222173): p.329.

DYFED - (1) Carmarthen/Moridunum, Carmarthenshire, 108-11 Priory Street, 3rd C. R-B shop & other buildings (SN 4167 2047): p.329 & fig.2 p.330; (2) Llawhaden, Pembrokeshire, late-IA/R-B enclosures: (i) Bodringallt, radiocarbon-dated (ii) (a) Dan-y-Coed, two-phase I-A/R-B occupation (SN 077188) (b) Drim Camp, 2-phase late-IA/post-Roman occupation (SN 067194) (c) Woodside, 1st phase palisade c.30BC, 2nd phase bank & ditch c.AD75 (SN 078199): p.331.

SOUTH GLAMORGAN - (1) Cardiff Castle, 4 occupation phases: (a) timber fort c. 30 acres c.AD55-89/90. (b) brief occupation in late-1st C. (c) 3rd C. re-fortification (d) brief re-occupation (ST 181766): pp.331/2; (2) Cold Knap, Barry, 3-rd-4th C. building with 22 rooms (SO 0993 6648): pp.332/3 & fig.3; (3) Cowbridge, R-B buildings (i) Arthur John Car Park, 22 rooms built c.AD100, refurbished after 20 yearss, abandoned by end of 2nd C. (SS 9954 7475) (ii) 77 High Street, R-B occupation (SS 9931 7473) (iii) Bear Barn, late-3rd/4th C. buildings (SS 9941 7480) (iv) Hopyard Meadow, occupation debris late-3rd/4th C. (SS 9890 7485): pp.333/4 & fig.4.

WEST GLAMORGAN - (1) Neath - Cardiff Roman road, Margham Park (SS 810852): p.334.

GWENT [MONMOUTHSHIRE] - (1) Caerleon/Isca: (i) 15/19 High Street, Roman finds inc. LEG II AVG tile (ST 339906) (ii) Lodge Road, Roman road surface (ST 3368 9083): p.334; (2) Caerwent/Venta, Insula I, large courtyard-building 3rd/4th C. (ST 467907): p.334 & fig.5 p.335.


TAYSIDE - (1) Cargill, Perthshire, SW fort rampart (NO 166379): pp.335/6; (2) Easter Caputh, Caputh, Perth and Kinross, Roman drainage channel (NO 109396): p.336; (3) Oathlaw, Kingsbridge Farm, Angus, 1st C. clay lamp (NO 4378 5623): p.336; (4) Meikleour, Caputh, Perth and Kinross, Roman watch-tower proved to be prehistoric homestead (NO 162397): p.336; (5) Strageath, Muthill, Perthshire, three construction phases: Flavian & Antonine I/II (NN 898180): pp.336/7.

CENTRAL [STIRLINGSHIRE] - (1) Camelon, Flavian/Antonine fort (NS 862807): p.337; (2) Lochlands, Camelon, 2 marching camps (NS 854818, 852816): p.337.

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY - (1) Gatehouse of Fleet Roman road, Girthorn, Stewarty: hollow-way north of Barclay Burn, agger at Crowcleugh Burn (NX 622588, 628591, 631594): p.337.

ANTONINE WALL - (1) Kinneil, Bo'ness & Carriden, Cenral, fortlet, c.70 x 60 ft. (c.21.5 x 18.5 m) (NS 977803): p.338; (2) Callendar Park, Falkirk, Central, Wall and Military Way (NS 904795 - 906795): p.338; (3) Seabegs Wood, Falkirk, Central, "expansion" to rear of Wall (NS 816794): p.338; (4) Croy Hill, Cumbernauld and Kilsyth, Strathclyde, A.P.'s of ditch and counterscarp (NS 7276 7376): p.338; (5) Bar Hill, Kirkintilloch, Strathclyde, principia, via principalis et via decumana (NS 708759): pp.338/9; (6) Bearsden, New Kilpatrick, Strathclyde, main cardo of fort, bath-house (NS 545721): p.339.

STRATHCLYDE - (1) Girvan, Ayrshire, second camp discovered (NX 188991): p.339.

LOTHIAN - (1) Cramond Tower, Edinburgh, Midlothian, V-shaped ditch (c.1.77 x 1.1 m) (NT 1911 7694): p.339; (2) Inveresk, Midlothian, fort (NT 342721) and new 55-acre camp: pp.339/340; (3) Millburn Tower and Gogar Green, Edinburgh, Midlothian, two new temporary camps (NT 173718 and NT 177718): p.340; (4) St. Germains, Tranent, East Lothian, 1st/2nd C. farmstead-settlement (NT 427743): p.340.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

II Inscriptions
by M.W.C. Hassall & R.S.O. Tomlin (396)


  1. London/Londinium, 6-8 Crosswall EC3 (TQ 335810): nine fragments of buff oolitic-sandstone (same as Brit.1981.1) found 1981 re-used in one of the city bastions: D M • ...]EMORIAE[... ‌ [...]TVITATI♥♠♥ ‌ [...]MARCIANAE ‌ [...]It ♥ ANN ♠ X ♥ ‌ [...] ♥ AVREL ♥ ‌ [...]EC♥C ‌ [...] ‌ [...]RTI♥ ‌ [...]VS♥F♥C. p.396.
  2. Bath/Aquae Sulis, Avon/Somerset (ST7564): Folded lead defixio found in 1979 in the hot-spring/reservoir of the King's Bath with Items #3-#7 (transcription): Brittuenda Marinus Memorina. pp.396-8 & fig.27.
  3. Ibid.: irregular lead tablet found 1979 with #2, inscribed both sides (transcription): obverse: Nomen furis qui LATERA reverse: IRQVET donatur.... p.398 & fig.28 p.399.
  4. Ibid.: lead tablet and small fragment found 1979 with #2, inscribed both sides (transcription): obverse: Pet(it)io Rovet(a)e Victoria, Vindocunu(s), maritus; Cunomolius, Minervina, ussor; Cunitius, ser(v)us, Senovara, ussor; Lavidendus, ser(v)us; Mattonius, ser(v)us; Catinius, exsactoris furem; Methianu[s. vacat?] reverse: ...amicus... TPIΛSV GINENINVSV igienunus fragment: ...dono.... p.398 & fig.29 p.400.
  5. Ibid.: lead ansate tablet found 1979 with #2 (transcription): nomen rei qui destra le involaverit. p.401 & fig.30 p.402.
  6. Ibid.: four conjoining fragments of rectangular lead tablet found 1979 with #2 (transcription): Deae Suli Minervae Docca ‌ dono numini tuo pecuniam quam ‌ [... a]misi id est (denarios) (quinque) et is [q]ui ‌ [eam involaveri]t si ser[vu]s s[i liber] ‌ [si vir si femina] ex<s>igatur [...] ‌ [...].[...]. pp.401/6 & fig.31 p.403.
  7. Ibid.: lead defixio tablet found 1979 with #2, inscribed both sides in retrograde 4th-C. cursive script (transposition): obverse: I seu gen(tili)s seu C ‌ h(r)istianus quaecumque utrum vir ‌ utrum mulier utrum puer utrum puella ‌ utrum servus utrum liber mihi Annian ‌ o matutene de bursa mea s(e)x argente[o]s ‌ furaverit tu d[o]mina dea ab ipso perexi[g]‌e[...eo]s si mihi per [f]raudem aliquam INDEP ‌ REG[.]STVM dederit nec sic ipsi dona sed ut sangu‌inem suum EPVTES qui mihi hoc inrogaverit. reverse: Postum[inanu]s Pisso ‌ Locinna Alauna ‌ Materna Gunsula ‌ C(an)didina Euticius ‌ Peregrinus       ‌ Latinus ‌ Senicianus ‌ Avitianus ‌ Victor ‌ Scu[tri]us ‌ Aessicunia ‌ Paltucca ‌ Calliopis ‌ Celerianus. p.406 & figs 32/3 pp. 404/5.
  8. Colchester/Camulodunum, Balkerne Lane (TL 992252): fragment of Purbeck marble found 1976 in Roman? pit: ...]T ♠ [.... p.407.
  9. Caistor St Edmund/Venta Icenorum, Norfolk (TG 227035): lead defixio found 1981 during field-walking on bank of River Tas (transcription): a Nase[... ‌ eve(h)it Vroc[... ‌ s, cap(t)olare, spectr[um(?), ‌ cufia(m), duas ocrias, x vas ‌ a stagnea, si mascel, si m(!)e‌mina, si puer, si pu(e)lla. Duas ‌ ocri(as) si vull(u)eris, factae sang(uine) ‌ suo ut (i)llu(m) requerat<at> Neptun(u)s, ‌ e(t) amictus e(t) cufia (et) arm(i)lla[e... ‌ denarii sv, cape(t)olare. Tunc sanguin(e) ‌ fasciam tenet fur e ‌ carta s(upra) s(cripta) ratio(n)e. p.408 & fig.34 p.409.
  10. Thetford, Norfolk (TL 866849): irregular lead sheet inscribed on one side: OVA • SVINIMEP ‌ SILAVON • ...]MEPTSESV[.... p.410 & fig.35.
  11. Lincoln/Lindum (SK 978722): seven fragments of oolitic-limestone tombstone found 1980 during excavations at East Bight: ...]ALI ‌ [...]NN ‌ [...]FIL ‌ [...]CEN ‌ [...]NVS ‌ [...] MINER ‌ [...]VS ET ‌ [...]. p.410.
  12. Wall/Letocetum, Staffordshire (SK 096065): sandstone block found 1981 re-used in Roman building at W end of village: IIQIIS ‌ [...]. p.410.
  13. Carlisle/Luguvalium, Cumbria, Annetwell St. (NY 396561): fragment of buff-sandstone found 1981 unstratified: V[...]. pp.410/11.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Mancetter/Manduessedum, Warwickshire (SP 321965): part of a Samian Drag.27 cup found 1981 at new Vicarage: stamped: CAPITV•F, incised after firing: [chi-rho] BIILALVCI. p.419.
  2. Catterick/Cataractonium, North Yorkshire (SE 225992): complete hypocaust pillar tile, or pedalis found in 1956 during road works, impressed with the stamp: LEGVIV. p.420.
  1. Caerleon/Isca Silurum, Gwent/Monmouthshire (ST 340906): thin disc of lead found 1979 in frigidarium drain, stamped with a wreath on one side, on the other the text: L•IIA. [The authors speculate that this was a token to permit civilian use of the military bath-house.] p.420.