Britannia XV (1984) Index

Main Articles

Observations on CartimanduaD. Braund1*
The Temple of Claudius at Colchester ReconsideredP.J. Drury7
Defensive Outworks of Roman Forts in BritainD.R. Wilson51*
British Urban Defences in EarthworkS.S. Frere63
Ballistaria in first to mid-third century Britain: a reappraisalD.B. Campbell75*
The Pes Monetalis and the Pes Drusianus in XantenC.J. Bridger85
Romano-British Face Pots and Head PotsG. Braithwaite99
North Gaulish Potteries in BritainB. Richardson & P.A. Tyers133
A Roman Mausoleum and Associated Marble Scarcophagus and Burials from Welwyn, HertfordshireT. Rook, S. Walker & C.B. Denston143
Clipped Siliquae and the end of Roman BritainA. Burnett163
Fourth Century SaxonsP. Bartholomew169
Whatever Happened to the Agri Decumantes?J. Hind187
A Sanctuary at Wood Lane End, Hemel HempsteadD.S. Neal193
New Frontiers: The Roman Fort at Doune and its Possible SignificanceG.S. Maxwell217!
The Roman Countryside: Settlement and Agriculture in N.W. EssexT.M. Williamson225


A Lead Shrine from Wallsend by Lindsay Allason-Jones (231)
'The Solway Frontier: Interim Report 1976-81' Britannia xiii (1982) by R.L. Bellhouse & G.D.B. Jones (232)
Hadrian and the Title Pater Patriae by Julian Bennett (234)
A Cheek-piece from a Cavalry Helmet found in Leicester by Paul Clay & Graham Webster (235)
A Roman Graffito from [St. Osyth Priory, Colchester,] Essex by Mike Corbishley (238)
A Grey-ware Cult Shard from Bielby by P. Didsbury (239)
The Building of Town Defences in Earthwork in the Second Century A.D. by M.G. Fulford & D.W.A. Startin (240)
The Date of the Rebuilding of Hadrian's Turf Wall in Stone by Mark Hassall (242)
Amber Amulets [from Dorchester and Colchester] by Martin Henig (244)
A Gold Votive Plaque [from East Anglia] by Martin Henig (246)
A Roman Stamped Shield-boss from London by Ralph Jackson (246)
Falernian Wine at Roman Colchester by P.R. Sealey & B.M.R. Davies (250)
The Early Roman Phase at Maiden Castle by Malcolm Todd (254)
The Location of Bovium by A.C. & E. Waddelove (255)
Proposed Expansion for the Iron Die Found in, or Before, 1889 in the City of London by R.P. Wright (257)
The Problem of the Nature of the Pliable Material to be Impressed in Leaden Dies Citing Centurions in Roman Britain, in Particular at Caerleon (Isca) by R.P. Wright (259)
A Late Roman Buckle from Dorchester, Dorset by C. Spacey Green (260)

Roman Britain in 1983

I Sites Explored
by S.S. Frere (265)


GWYNEDD - (1) Bryn-y-Castell, enclosure below hillfort, occupied mid-1st - 3rd C. (SH 728429): p.266; (2) Pennal, extramural buildings SW of fort (SH 704000): p.266.

CLWYD - (1) Rhuddlan, Lon Hylas/Castle Street junction, Samian ware A.D.70-110 (SJ 025779): pp.266/7.

POWYS - (1) Llwyn-y-Brain, Caersws I fort, pottery (SO 0410 9255): p.267; (2) Erglodd - Caer Gai Roman Road (SH 7944 0309 to 7865 0206, SH 7361 0019): p.267.

DYFED - (1) Blaenos, fortlet or practice-works (SN 7541 3422): p.267; (2) Careg-y-Bwci, signal-station (SN 6457 4790): p.267; (3) Carmarthen/Moridunum, 108-11 Priory Street excavations concluded (SN 4166 2050): p.267; (4) Castell Henllys, Roman slate building & associated 2nd-4th C. pottery in annexe (SN 117391): p.267; (5) Llandeilo, possible fort confirmed as 19th C. field-boundaries (SN 6325 2215): p.267; (6) Llawhaden Romano-British ringworks: (i) Woodside (SN 078199), (ii) Dan-y-Coed (SN 077188): pp.267/8; (7) Pen Llwyn, excavations in fort retentura (SN 650806): p.268; (8) Llandeilo - Llandovery Roman road (SN 6490 2465 to 6570 2516, SN 6641 2565 to 6680 2608, SN 6705 2625, SN 7028 3045 to 7140 3133 ): p.268; (9) Llandovery - Pumsaint Roman road: (SN 766357), Dolau-Hirion (SN 764362), Tywi-crossing (SN 763364), Hennlys-Fach (SN 755371): p.268.

SOUTH GLAMORGAN - (1) Cowbridge, Bear Field, 3-phase timber structures (SS 993747): p.268.

WEST GLAMORGAN - (1) Coelbren fort, drainage-channel (SN 8590 1073): p.268; (2) Loughor/Leucarum fort: (i) Lower Station House, (ii) Upper Station House, (iii) Castle Street, (iv) 1-3 Dock Street, (v) Station Workshops (SS 562979): pp.268/9; (3) Neath/Nidum, pottery-kiln NW of fort (SS 7482 9783): p.269.

GWENT - (1) Caerleon/Isca: (i) Museum (ST 339905), (ii) Old Magistrate's Court (ST 339908): pp.269/70 & fig.2 p.271; (2) Caerwent/Venta, late-3rd/early-4th C. courtyard house (ST 467907): p.270 & fig.3 p.272; (3) Great Bulmore, roadside structures (ST 360915): p.270 & fig.4 p.273; (4) Risca, St. Mary's Church chancel, Roman finds including imbrices, tegulae and a LEG II AVG stamp (ST 237912): p.270.


GRAMPIAN REGION - (1) Burnfield, Aberdeenshire, marching-camp (NJ 540476): p.273.

TAYSIDE - (1) Glenbank, fortlet discovered on A.P.'s (NN 812057): pp.273/4; (2) Inverquharity, Angus, small Flavian fort (NO 404582): p.274; (3) Strageath, eleventh excavation season at fort (NN 898180): pp.274/5; (4) Spittalfield Roman road, Perthshire (NO114412): p.275.

CENTRAL REGION - (1) Doune, Flavian-period fort (NN 727012): p.275; (2) Dunipace, marching-camp (NS 841821): p.275; (3) Lochlands, Camelon, marching-camps (NS 854814): p.275; (4) Malling, Lake of Menteith, Flavian fort & Stracathro-type marching-camp (NS 561999): p.275.

ANTONINE WALL - (1) Inveravon, pipeline trench cutting thru: (i) Antonine ditch, (ii) marching-camp (NS 958797): p.276; (2) Tollpark, Military Way (NS 772772): p.276; (3) Bar Hill: (i) sandstone plinth, (ii) marching-camp (NS 707757): p.276.

STRATHCLYDE REGION - (1) Carstairs Mains marching-camps (NS 947444): p.276; (2) Girvan Mains, Ayrshire, marching-camps: (i) east camp (NX 192992), (ii) west camp (NX 188990): p.276; (3) Kirkhouse marching-camp (NT 098464): p.276.

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY - (1) Dalbeattie, Kirkcudbright, marching-camp (NX 826608): p.276; (2) Trailflat marching-camp (NY 049850): p.276.

BORDERS REGION - (1) Oxton fortlet annexe (NT 490546): p.276.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

II Inscriptions
by M.W.C. Hassall & R.S.O. Tomlin (333)


  1. Gloucester/Glevum, Kingsholm (SO 836198): four fragments of oolitic limestone tombstone found 1983 on site of Roman cemetery: D M • L VAL AVRELIVS ‌ VET LEG XX • IVL.... p.333 & plate.XXIV.
  2. Bath/Aquae Sulis, Avon/Somerset (ST7564): rectangle of pewter sheet founf 1979 in King's Bath votive deposit, inscribed both sides in retrograde cursive script (transposition): side a) a[e]n[um me]um qui levavit [e]xc‌onic[tu]s [e]st templo Sulis ‌ dono si mulier si baro si ser‌vus si libersi pure si puella ‌ et qui hoc fecerit san‌gu(in)em suum in ipsmu aen‌mu fundat
    side b) dono si mul[ie]r si ‌ ba(ro) si servus si lib‌er si puer si puel‌la eum latr[on]‌em qui rem ipsa‌m involavi[t] d‌eus [i]nvenia[t]. p.333 & figs 31/32 pp.334/5.
  3. ibid.: rectangle of pewter sheet found 1980 in votive deposit of King's Bath, text in capitals with E's reversed (transcription): Britivenda Venibelia. p.333 & fig.33 p.336.
  4. ibid.: two fragments of pewter sheet found 1980 in King's Bath votive deposit, text in mirror-image cursive (transposition): Lovernisca d[onat] ‌ eum qui sive v[ir] ‌ <i>sive femina s[i]ve ‌ puer sive puella ‌ qui ina[.] sortium ‌ i[n]volaverit. p.333 & fig.34 p.337.
  5. ibid.: pewter sheet fragment found 1980 in King's Bath votive deposit, inscribed in cursive (transcription): [... perm]ittas ‌ [...]um nec sanita‌(tem ... n]isi tandiu ta‌[...]iat quandiu hoc ‌ [... ill]ud se habuerit ‌ [...] si vir si femina et ‌ [...] si ancilla. p.336 & fig.35 p.338.
  6. ibid.: white-marble fragment found 1983 re-used in late-4th C. paving within temple precinct: ...]C[... ‌ ...T]IB CL T[IB FIL .... p.336.
  7. Pagans Hill, Chew Stoke, Somerset (ST 557626): majority of square lead sheet found 1983 with #8 & #9, inscribed in cursive (transcription): [...]ri[...] ‌ [...]mitr[...]pio[...] ‌ in *is iii millibus cuius [de]mediam ‌ partem tibi ut ita [e]xigas a Vassicil‌lo [.]pecomini filio et uxore sua quoniam ‌ [...]rtussum quod illi de hospitio Lon[...] ‌ [...]alaverint nec illis [p]ermittas sanit[a]‌[tem] nec bibere nec ma[n]d[u]care nec dormi[re] ‌ [nec nat]os sanos habe[a]nt nessi hanc rem ‌ [meam] ad fanum tuum [at]tulerint iteratis ‌ [pre]c[i]bus te rogo ut [ab ip]sis nominibus ‌ [inimicorum] meorum hoc [pertu]ssum recipi ‌ [...] perven[ia]t. p.336 & fig.36 p.339.
  8. ibid.: three fragments of lead sheet found 1983 with #7 & #9, inscribed in 'rustic capitals' (transcription): [...] ‌ gno...quem ‌ ..tuadrodit ‌ [...] ‌ [...] ‌ [...] ‌ t[...] ‌ q[...] ‌ [...] ‌ octies novem e ‌ sit omni gen ‌ borum fatigatu ‌ e exorit s[...] ‌ [...]. p.336 & fig.37 p.340.
  9. ibid.: two fragments of sheet lead found 1983 with #7 & #8, text in capitals (transcription): [...]cond tin [...] ‌ [...]umu[e] quomin[us...] ‌ [...]frau[d]e sua ul[la...] ‌ [...]us donav[...] ‌ [...]eus [...]. p.336 & fig.38 p.341.
  10. Burnham Norton, Norfolk (TF 831436): black-mudstone fragment found 1940's during ploughing: ...]N♦I[.... p.336.
  11. Wasperton, Warwickshire (SP 265585): sandstone block found 1981 upside-down in ritual pit: FELICITER. p.337.
  12. Caerleon/Isca, Gwent/Monmouthshire, Blackhall Street (ST 3402 9080): four fragments found 1980 in latera praetorii: a) ...]MP
    b/c) ...]VRELIA[... ‌ ...]IIS♦[...
    d) ...]VS. pp.337-341 & plate.XXV.
  13. ibid.: fragment of Purbeck marble: ...♦.... p.341.
  14. Tilston, Grafton, Cheshire (SJ 453516): sandstone altar found 1983 in ditch within Roman settlement: GENIO ‌ LOCI FE. p.341.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. CHESHIRE Chester/Deva, Princess Street (SJ 403664): rectangular ceramic stamp found in 1981 in early-3rd C. context, text cut retrograde: > MΛLICRΛS ‌ SI ‌ LVCILIVSΛ ‌ BINIΛNVS. p.342 & plate.XXVI.
  1. DORSET Tarrant Hinton Roman Villa (ST 927118): fragment of painted wall plaster found 1970/71 in Building II Room I of the villa: [CΛVII] ‌ CΛNII[M]. p.343.
  1. TYNE AND WEAR/NORTHUMBERLAND Wallsend/Segedunum (NZ 300660): fragments of three tiles found 1979 impressed with same die stamp: (a) imbrex [LEGV]IV
    (b) imbrex [L]EGVIV
    (c) tegula [L]EGVIV. p.347.
  2. Ibid.: black tile fragment found 1979 bearing impressed stamp: ...]OHIIIL[... "[C]oh(ors) (quartae) L[ingonum]". p.347.
  1. BORDERS REGION/ROXBURGHSHIRE Newstead/Trimontium (NT5734): Iron 'parade helmet' found 1906 with two inscriptions under headpiece rim: (a) MI[...]VCI T ATINIA "Mi[...]uci T(urmae) Atinia(ni)"
    (b) IIX X. p.348.
  2. CENTRAL REGION/STIRLINGSHIRE Camelon (NS 864810): Drag. 27 cup found 1899-1900 inside fort with graffito inside footstand and an impressed stam on rim:
    graffito: TASGETIO
    stamp: ...SIM. p.348.
  3. CENTRAL REGION/STIRLINGSHIRE Mumrills (NS 918793): Drag. 18 platter found 1923-7 within fort with graffito on footstand: TILCΛE "T(urmae) Ilcae". p.348.