Britannia XVII (1986) Index

Main Articles

The Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement at Woodcock Hall, Saham Toney, NorfolkR.A. Brown1
Pre-Flavian Forts and their GarrisonsV.A. Maxfield59*
The Brigantes: from Clientage to ConquestW.S. Hanson & D.B. Campbell73*
The Wentlooge Levels: a Romano-British saltmarsh reclamation in south-east WalesJ.R.L. Allen & M.G. Fulford91
A Set of Roman Medical Instruments from ItalyR. Jackson119
Ornamental Stonework from Roman LondonF.A. Pritchard169
The Excavation of a Roman Tilery on Great Cansiron Farm, Hartfield, SussexD. Rudling et al.191
A Romano-British Gold Workshop of the Second CenturyH.E.M. Cool231
Roman Amphorae from CanterburyP. Arthur239
the Excavation of a Romano-British Temple and a Later Cemetery on Lamyatt Beacon, SomersetR. Leech259


RIB 1322 by S.S. Frere (329)
The Bunwell Horse by A. Gregory (330)
The Place Name Arbeia by D.L. Kennedy (332)
A Fragment of Lifesize Bronze Equine Statuary from Ashill, Norfolk by Annabel K. Lawson (333)
Woodland and Roman Forts by M.R. McCarthy (339)
A Lead-Lined Coffin Burial from Winchester by Michael Morris (343)
Three-horned Bull by S. Read, M. Henig & L. Cram (346)
Bernwood Forest by J. Steane (348)
A Copper-alloy Votive Bar and a Carved Bone Plaque from Chelmsford, Essex by N.P. Wickenden (348)
Bath and the Identification of the Caracalla by John Peter Wild (352)
A Reconstruction of a Roman Saddle by Peter Connolly (353)
Four Lead Objects of Possible Christian Significance from East Anglia by H.E. Major & M.R. Eddy (355)
Legionary Speed of March before the Battle with Boudicca by Herbert W. Benario (358)

Roman Britain in 1985

I Sites Explored
by S.S. Frere (363)


GWYNEDD - (1) Anglesey, two bronze bucket-handle mounts: p.364; (2) Coed Cyrnol, Menai Bridge, hoard of 37 coins (SH 554717): p.364; (3) Graeanog, Llanllyfni, samian pottery in enclosed farmstead (SH 4580 4938): p.364.

CLWYD - (1) Prestatyn, six timber buildings dated c. AD80-140 overlying Iron-Age round-houses (SJ 062817): p.364 & fig.2 p.365; (2) Top-y-Glascoed, surface of Chester - Caerhun road (SH 9918 7391): p.364.

POWYS - (1) Caersws, latest phase of vicus dated c. AD100-150 (SO 030918): pp.364/5;

DYFED - (1) Brawdy promontory fort, initial phase dated to early-Roman period (SM 862239): p.365; (2) Carmarthen/Moridunum, Spilman Street, Flavian buildings within fort (SN 4145 1998): pp.365/6; (3) Trawscoed, vicus N of fort occupied c. AD70-130 (SN 671727): p.366.

SOUTH GLAMORGAN - (1) Barry, location of coin hoard of 1899 identified (ST 1417 6825): p.366; (2) Cardiff Castle, two aes of AD87 recovered (ST 181766): p.366.

WEST GLAMORGAN - (1) Melyn Court marching-camp (SN 837001): p.366.

GWENT - (1) Caerleon/Isca, Mill Street excavations (ST 3410 9094): (i) Riding School Field (ii) Mill Street Smallholding (iii) Cambria House: pp.366-369 & figs.3/4. (2) Caerwent/Venta, temple & temenos in Insula IX beside forum (ST 467907): pp.369/70, fig.5 & plate.XXVIIIa.


GRAMPIAN REGION - (1) Bellie marching-camp (NJ 355612): p.370; (2) Cawdor, Easter Galantray, 2-phase camp (NH 807483): p.370; (3) Thomshill, Birnie, possible Roman fort (NJ 210573): p.370.

TAYSIDE REGION - (1) Bullionfield souterrain (NO 3438 3045): p.370; (2) Gask Ridge to Huntingtower Roman road (NO 028207 to 056227): pp.370/71. (3) Strageath fort excavations (NN 898180): p.371; (4) West Mains of Huntingtower watch-tower (NO 072246): p.371;

LOTHIAN REGION - (1) Carlops, Spittal marching-camp (NT 171572): p.371.

STRATHCLYDE REGION - (1) Barochan fort excavations (NS 413690): p.371; (2) Kirkhouse, Dolphinton marching-camp (NT 097462): pp.371/374.

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY - (1) Annan Hill marching-camp (NY 192655): p.374; (2) Innerfield, Lochmaben marching-camp (NY 091823): p.374.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

II Inscriptions
by M.W.C. Hassall & R.S.O. Tomlin (428)


  1. Barking, Essex, Barking Abbey Industrial Estate (TQ 438840): top-right part of oolitic limestone tombstone found 1985 in a Saxon context: [D]♠M ‌ [...]CCAE ‌ [...]AN♠ ‌ [...]CVN ‌ [...]. p.428 & plate.XXXIa.
  2. Eccles villa, Aylesford, Kent (TQ 722605): irregular rectangle of sheet lead found 1970 in rubble fill of Room 121, inscribed both sides (reconstructed text): Obverse: s(...) s(upra)s(crip)ti Reverse: donatio diebus quo ‌ perit Butu resque ‌ qu(a)e ... nec ante sa‌netate nec salute ‌ nesi qua(m) in do[m]o die ‌ ... sanetate in do‌[mo dei...]. p.428 & figs.1/2 pp.430/31.
  3. Gloucester/Glevum, Cathedral (SO 8308 1878): centurial stone found 1985 re-used in 15th C. blocking: LEG XX VV CHO [...] ‌ CORNELI CRESC[...]. p.429 & plate.XXXIb.
  4. Uley, Gloucestershire (ST 789996): thin sheet bronze found 1977 during temple excavations: DEO ‌ MERCV‌RIO SIIVERΛ ‌ IIOSVL[...]FELIXL[...] ‌ [...]. pp.439/40.
  5. Bath/Aquae Sulis, Avon/Somerset (ST7564): thin sheet of lead/tin alloy found 1979 in votive deposit of King's Bath, inscribed in 4th C. cursive (transcription): Docimedis ‌ [p]erdidi(t) mani‌cilia dua qui ‌ illas involavi(t) ‌ ut mentes sua(s) ‌ perd[at] et ‌ oculos s[uo]s ‌ in fano ubi ‌ destina(t). p.430 & fig.3 p.432.
  6. Brean Down, Somerset (ST 293587): irregular rectangular lead sheet found 1980 on beach below Roman temple (reconstructed text): [...] ‌ caricula quae [... si s]er‌v[us si] liber si ba[ro] s[i muli]er ‌ qui [... d]omin‌a [...] facias ‌ sic [i]lla (re)dim[a]t sa(n)guin[e s]uo lier ‌ [...] si bar[o] si mu[... ‌ [...]. pp.433-5 & fig.4.
  7. Dorchester/Durnovaria, Alington Avenue, Fordington (SY 702899): upper part of Portland limestone milestone found 1985 re-used in late-Roman building: IMP[...] ‌ POSTVM‌MO AVG. p.435 & plate XXXIIa.
  8. Puckeridge-Braughing, Hertfordshire (TL 387236): rectangular lead sheet found 1972 unstratified, inscribed on one side with an obscure hieroglyph and on the other side with four lines of undecipherable script with another glyph beneath: [text undecipherable]. p.436 & figs.5/6.
  9. Lancaster/Calunium? (SD4762): moulded sandstone fragment found 1972 in rubbish tip beside the river Lune: ...FELICI ‌ ...OPATRI. p.436 & plate.XXXIIb.
  10. York/Eburacum, York Minster (SE 603522): buff-sandstone slab fragment found 1985 re-used in Medieval vault: ... ... ...EIVS... ...C OCTA... .... pp.436/7.
  11. Carlisle/Luguvalium, Annetwell Street (NY 398561): top-right part of slab found 1982 unstratified: ...XVV. p.437.
  12. ibid.: building-stone found 1982 in situ in late-2nd C. courtyard building: IVLVICTOR. p.437.
  13. ibid.: building-stone found 1982 re-used in late-Roman drain: ...RIX. p.437.
  14. ibid.: building-stone found 1982 re-used in road: NIBVS. p.437.
  15. ibid.: building-stone found 1982: ...V or Λ.... p.438.
  16. ibid.: oak beam offcut found 1984 in post-hole of Flavian II fort: V. p.438.
  17. ibid.: oak beam offcut found 1984 in post-hole of Flavian II fort: . p.438.
  18. ibid.: large oak plank found 1984 in S gateway drain of Flavian fort: IIIIV. p.438.
  19. ibid.: short oak plank found 1984 in W tower of S gateway of Flavian fort: III. p.438.
  20. Piercebridge, Co. Durham (NZ 212156): two fragments of tombstone found 1750 in Tofts Field, now lost (transcript): ... ‌ EXN... ‌ GERMAN SVPER... ‌ AETATE TR...CIN... ‌ B F TRIB... ‌ VERI♥CONIVNX... ‌ PIENTISSIM... ‌ ...POSVERVNT... ‌ ...VIXIT... ‌ .... p.438 & fig.7 p.439.
  21. Ebchester/Vindomora, Co. Durham (NZ 104555): buff-sandstone tombstone fragment found 1985 on site of praetorium: ...M♥ΛC... ‌ ...NIVG VA... ‌ F.... p.438.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. CUMBRIA/CUMBERLAND Carlisle/Luguvalium, Annetwell Street (NY 398561): round lead seal found 1983 unstratified: ALE II ‌ AS. "Alae Secundae Asturum". p.439.
  1. CUMBRIA/CUMBERLAND Carlisle/Luguvalium, Castle Street: rectangular lead seal found 1983 unstratified: LEG XX. p.440.
  1. CUMBRIA/CUMBERLAND Carlisle/Luguvalium, Annetwell Street: tegula, imbrex and three other bricks/tiles found 1981/2: LEG XX VV. p.440.
  2. ibid.: ten fragments of tegulae found 1981-3: LEG XXVV. p.441.
  3. ibid.: tegula fragment found 1981/2: LEG X[XVV]. p.441.
  4. ibid.: five tegulae and one fragment found 1981/2: LIIG II ΛVG. p.441.
  5. ibid.: tegula fragment found 1981/2: [L]EG II ΛV[G]. p.441.
  1. CUMBRIA/CUMBERLAND Stanwix/Petriana, Cumbria Park Hotel (NY 400574): brick fragment found 1984: L[EG VIIII H]. p.441.
  2. CUMBRIA/CUMBERLAND Netherby/Castra Exploratorum (NY 596516): five imbrex fragments found 1949: LEG VIV. p.441.
  1. DURHAM Barking, Abbey Industrial Estate (TQ 438840): tile fragment found 1985 unstratified: PPBR. "P[rocuratores] P[rovinciae] BR[itannicae]". p.442.
  1. GWENT/MONMOUTHSHIRE Caerleon/Isca, Museum Gardens (ST 339905): five fragments of wooden writing tablet found 1985 in filling of well in the scamnum tribunorum, text written in Old Roman Cursive script (reconstructed): opinionem petendam ...Ofillio et ...impensam petituri sunt ...ramateria...aria in in referent ...emansit ...exient qui ...materiarum .... pp.450/51 & plate.XXXIV.