Britannia XXII (1991) Index

Main Articles

Claudius' Victory Arch in RomeA.A. Barrett1
Tonsor Humanus: Razor and Toilet-knife in AntiquityGeorge C. Boon21
The Roman Cavalry saddlePeter Connolly & Sarah Van Driel-Murray33*
A Review of Current Research on the Turrets and Curtain of Hadrian's WallJ.G. Crow51!
Coinage from a Civitas: A Survey of the Roman Coins Found in Norfolk and their Contribution to the Archaeology of the Civitas IcenorumJohn A. Davies & Tony Gregory65*
Excavations at 'Sandygate', Cold Bath Road, Caerleon, GwentE.M. Evans103
Seneca and the Temple of Divus ClaudiusDuncan Fishwick137
Ex Radice BritanicaA.P. Fitzpatrick143*
Brading, Brantingham, and York: A New Look at some Fourth-Century MosaicsRoger Ling147
Wall Paintings from the Winchester Palace Site, SouthwarkS.A. MacKenna & R.J. Ling159
Numinibus Aug.J.C. Mann173
The Roman Coinage from London Bridge and the Development of the City and SouthwarkMichael Rhodes179*
The Roman Body Found on Grewelthorpe Moor in 1850: A ReappraisalR.C. Turner, M. Rhodes & J.P. Wild191


A Burnt Timber Building from within the Fort at Pumsaint by Barry & Helen Burnham (203)
A New Celtic Coin from East Anglia by Amanda Chadburn (207)
A Roman Sceptre-Head from Eastbury, Berks. by Lori-Ann Foley (208)
Dating and Dolaucothi by G.D.B. Jones & K. Maude (210)
The Gallic Chronicle Exploded? by M.E. Jones & J. Casey (212)
The Notitia Dignitatum - Dating and Survival by J.C. Mann (215)
The Bronze Head of a Mule from Great Llanmelin Farm, Gwent by Janet Webster (219)

Roman Britain in 1990

I Sites Explored
by S.S. Frere (221)


CLWYD - (1) Denbigh, Roman road from Rhug Park to St Asaph (SJ 0554 6622): p.222; (2) Ffrith, Roman levels beneath Offa's Dyke (SJ 285552): p.222; (3) Chester - Caernarfon Roman road, Margary#67a, Waen Gate (SJ 0625 7475): p.222.

POWYS - (1) Abertanat fort, Site B (SJ 248214): pp.223/4 & fig.2; (2) Brecon Gaer, Roman material in clay-pit (SO 004295): p.224; (3) Caerau, vicus NW of fort (SN 923502): p.224; (4) Caersws: (i) Greenfields, E of Caersws II, 2nd-3rd C. levels (SO 031919), (ii) Health Centre, defensive ditch (SO 031919), (iii) A489 through fort and vicus (SO 028920): pp.224/5.

SOUTH GLAMORGAN - (1) Barry, Water's Edge Home, U-shaped ditch (ST 0993 6649): p.225; (2) Cardiff - Neath Roman road, Margary#60c (SS 8104 8510 - SS 8323 8326): p.225.

GWENT - (1) Caerwent/Venta, work continues in the basilica and at the temple (ST 467907): pp.225/6 & fig.3 p.227; (2) Caerleon/Isca: (i) Mill Street, canabae (ST 323909), (ii) Uskside suspected bath-house (ST 3435 9046), (iii) railway site, cemetery (ST 3465 3420): p.226; (3) Caldicot, Romano-British enclosure (ST 483874): p.226.


GRAMPIAN REGION - (1) Balnageith, NW angle-tower (NJ 0246 5781): p.226 & fig.4 p.229; (2) Brackla, R-B circular enclosure (NH 858514): p.226; (3) Boyndie, possible Roman camp (NJ 654636): p.226.

TAYSIDE - (1) Invergowrie marching-camp (NO 345300): pp.226/8; (2) Midgate, Perthshire, possible Gask-Ridge fortlet (NO 021205): p.228.

ANTONINE WALL - (1) Callendar Park, East Lodge, Falkirk, Wall ditch (NS 9043 7952): p.228; (2) Croy, geophysical survey, Wall course (NS 7215 7622 & NS 7250 7622): p.228 & fig.5 p.231.

CENTRAL REGION - (1) Dunipace marching-camp (NS 842845): p.230.

STRATHCLYDE REGION - (1) Girvan marching-camps (NS 188990): p.230.

BORDERS REGION - (1) Newstead/Trimontium: (i) Antonine fort (NT 571344), (ii) Flavian annexe, (iii) Red Rig, circular enclosure (NT 569337): pp.230/232.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

II Inscriptions
by R.S.O. Tomlin (293)


  1. unprovenanced, possibly Gloucester/Avon: piece of sheet lead found in Bristol c. 1985, inscribed in Old Roman Cursive (reconstructed text): donatur deo mercurio si qiis involaverit c[...]lam [...]icinnum nec non alia minutalia tocitami si baroo si milier si puella si puer si ingenuus si servus non ante eum laset quam mimbra rapi manu diem mortis concrutiat eum quinqui securam [..]nnoris involavit EA[...] AEAPR nec non et ququi res pictorias involaverit. pp.293-5, fig.294 & plate.XXXIIa.
  2. CUMBRIA [CUMBERLAND] Maryport/Alauna (NY0337): buff-sandstone fragment with relief of standing figure found before 1970 near the fort: [...]‌[...]IIX‌[...]ER. pp.295/6.
  3. Carlisle/Luguvalium, Tullie House (NY 396561): buff-sandstone building-stone found during building extensions in 1989: [...]SVOS. p.296.
  4. ibid.: red-sandstone slab fragment: .... p.296.
  5. ibid.: red-sandstone slab fragment: .... p.296.
  6. Birdoswald/Banna (NY 615663): buff-sandstone building-stone found in 1990 south of fort's fabrica: > CL AGISI. p.296 & fig.2.
  7. ibid.: buff-sandstone building-stone found in 1990 in situ in south wall of fort: [...]‌[> COVE[...]. p.297 & fig.3.
  8. Irthington (NY 498616): building-stone re-used in Irthington Chancel south wall, close to Hadrian's Wall Turret#58a: X. p.297.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Carlisle/Luguvalium, Annetwell Street (NY 398561): lead-sealing found in 1989: LIIΛV[...]. p.298.