Britannia XXIII (1992) Index

Main Articles

British Latin: The Text, Interpretation and Language of the Bath Curse TabletsJ.N. Adams1
Roman Salt Production in Chichester Harbour: Rescue Excavations at Chidham, West SussexRichard Bradley27
Carlisle: Excavations of a Section of the Annexe Ditch of the First Flavian Fort, 1990I.D. Caruana45!
A Sub-Roman Re-Defence of Hadrian's Wall?K.R. Dark111!
Pagans, Christians, and the 'Barbarian Conspiracy' of A.D. 367 in Roman BritainW.H.C. Frend121
Population Change in Roman LondonPeter Marsden & Barbara West133
The Twentieth Legion at Wroxeter and Carlisle in the First Century: The Epigraphic EvidenceR.S.O. Tomlin141*
Iron-Making at the Chesters Villa, Woolaston, Gloucester: Survey and Excavation 1987-91M.G. Fulford & J.R.L. Allen159


A Bust of Mars or a Hero from Cirencester by A.J. Barber, G.T. Walker, J. Paddock, & M. Henig (217)
Three Classis Britannica Stamps from London by N. Crowley & I.M. Betts (218)
Romano-British Face Pots from Holme-on-Spalding Moor and Shiptonthorpe, East Yorkshire by P. Halkon (222)
Longford and Langford as Significant Names in Establishing Lines of Roman Roads by K.E. Jermy (228)
Old Police House Camp, Bowness-on-Solway by G.D.B. Jones (230)
A Frying Pan from Great Lea, Binfield, Berkshire by G.D. Keevill (231)
A Collapsed Building Facade from Carsington, Derbyshire by R. Ling (233)
A Note on RIB 2054 by J.C. Mann (236)
A Bronze Bowl of Irchester Type from Stainfield, Lincolnshire by C. De Micheli (238)
Roman Brirdges on the Devil's Causeway? by R.D. Morwood & N. Hodgson(241)
Jet in Northern Gaul by M. Todd (246)
Roman Quays and Tide Levels by L.A. Toft (249)
A Roman Gold Ring from Kinwarton near Alcester, Warwickshire by P. Wise (254)

Roman Britain in 1991

I Sites Explored
by S.S. Frere (255)


CLWYD - (1) Flint, 261 Chester Road, evaluation (SJ 254723): p.256; (2) Ruthin, Brynhyfryd Park School, fort displays 2 military phases & 1 civilian? (SJ 130581): p.256.

POWYS - (1) Abertanat/Clawdd Coch, military sites: (i) Abertanat Camp B, barracks (SJ 245208), (ii) Clawdd Coch, 3 occupation phases (SJ 247201): pp.256-8 & fig.2; (2) Caersws, assessment trenching: (i) annexe defences (SJ 028921), (ii) N of annexe (SJ 028921), (iii) Old Cattle Market (SJ 030918): p.258.

WEST GLAMORGAN - (1) Loughor/Leucarum, 2 Ferry Road, via sagularis of fort (SS 5640 9803): p.258.

GWENT - (1) Caerleon/Isca, St. Cadoc's Hospital, Lodge Hill Roman cemetery (ST 3310 9080): p.258; (2) Caerwent/Venta, basilica and aedes (ST 467907): pp.258/9; (3) Chepstow: (i) 21 Bridge Street, mortarium of LITVGENVS (c.A.D. 65-100) (ST 535943), (ii) Thornwell Farm, subrectangular enclosure (ST 5400 9200): p.259; (4) Monmouth, 22-24 Monnow Street, pre-Flavian occupation (SO 507127): p.259.


ANTONINE WALL - (1) Carriden, vicus (NT 028807): p.259; (2) Inveravon, occupation & dating evidence (NS 952798): p.262 & figs.3/4 pp.260/61; (3) Polmont Burn, Roman bridge abutments (NS 9260 7951): p.262; (4) Falkirk, Rosehill House, E defences of fort (NS 887797): p.262 & fig.5 p.263; (5) Garnhall, Castle Cary, marching-camp (NS 787782): pp.262-4 & fig.6.

LOTHIAN REGION - (1) Arniston, Deadman Lies, native settlement (NT 329604): p.264; (2) Cramond, via principalis and porta praetoria of fort (NT 189769): p.264 & fig.7 p.265; (3) Inveresk, Crookston Road, triple-ditch system (NT 350718): p.264.

STRATHCLYDE REGION - (1) Elvanfoot Roman roads: (i) Crawford to Milton, Margary#7f (NS 9643 1651), (ii) Bodsberry Hill, (iii) Crawford to Durisdeer, Margary#77 (NS 956185): pp.264/5; (2) Lurg Moor Roman road near fortlet (NS 2960 7375): p.265; (3) Little Clyde Roman road, Margary#7f (NS 986158): pp.265/6; (4) Rowantree Grains Roman road, Margary#7f (NT 039138): p.266.

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY - (1) Beattock marching-camp C (NT 088028): p.266; (2) Kirkpatrick marching-camp (NY 280702): p.266; (3) Moffat Roman road, Margary#7f: (i) Yoke Knowes (NT 062082), (ii) Muckle Hill (NT 062073): p.266; (4) Gatehouse of Fleet Roman road (NX 544585): p.266.

BORDERS REGION - (1) Newstead/Trimontium, geophysical survey, 2nd C. vicus (NT 571344): p.267.



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields ...

II Inscriptions
by M.W.C. Hassall & R.S.O. Tomlin (309)


  1. London/Londinium, Huggin Hill bath-house, 85 Queen Victoria Street (TQ 322810): purbeck marble fragment found in 1989 in bath-house demolition debris: [...]MAX ♥ [...‌...]NIA[...]. p.309.
  2. ibid.: purbeck marble fragment found in 1989 with #1: [...]VG[...]. p.309.
  3. London/Londinium, 29 West Tenter Street (TQ 338810): marble fragment found in 1990 in Rpoman cemetery: [...]TVS[...‌...]C[...]. p.309.
  4. Southwark, Greater London, 10-18 Union Street (TQ 324800): rectangular lead sheet found in 1988 in pit associated with 4th C. material (retrograde text): ΛITRAM ‌ EVISANITRAM. pp.309/10.
  5. Uley, Gloucestershire (ST 789996): rectangle of sheet lead found in 1978 at the Temple of Mercury, inscribed in Old Roman Cursive (transcript): deo sancto mercurio honoratus ‌ conqueror numini tuo me per ‌ didisse rotas duas et vaccas quat ‌ tuor et resculas plurimas de ‌ hospitiolio meo ‌ rogaverim genium nu ‌ minis tui ut ei qui mihi fraudem ‌ fecerit sanitatem ei non per ‌ mittas nec iacere nec sedere nec ‌ bibere nec manducare si baro ‌ si mulier si puer si puella si servus ‌ si liber nisi meam rem ad me ‌ pertulerit et meam concordiam ‌ habuerit iteratis precibus ro ‌ go numen tuum ut petitio mea ‌ statim pareat me vindica ‌ tum esse a maiestate tua. pp.310/11 & fig.1.
  6. Stanwick, Northamptonshire (SP 972716): marble fragment found in 1990 re-used in villa reconstruction c. 300-325AD: [...]T ♥ F[...]. p.312.
  7. Alchester, Wendlebury, Oxfordshire (SP5720): Purbeck marble fragment found in 1991 associated with late-2nd to early-3rd C. material in pit N of town defences: [...]NI ♥ M[...‌...]♥ PP. p.312.
  8. Low Borrow Bridge, Cumbria/Westmorland (NY 611009): red-sandstone tombstone with female bust relief in gable, found in 1991 in Roman cemetery S of fort: D M ‌ AELIASE ‌ NTICAVI ‌ XITANXXV ‌ vacat ‌ AVRELVE ‌ RVLVSCO ‌ NIVCIKA ‌ RISSIME. p.312 & fig.2 p.313.
  9. Hemigborough, North Yorkshire (SE 674306): millstone-grit slab fragment found in 1991 re-used in Saxon nave of St Mary's Church; probably originated from YorkEburacum: [...]‌[...]LΛ[...]‌[...]TΛE[...]‌[...]AAΛB[...]‌[...]OMΛE[...]‌[...]SPRCON[...]‌[...]. p.312 & fig.3 p.314.
  10. Binchester/Vinovia, County Durham (NZ 210313): buff-sandstone altar fragment found in 1990 re-used within praetorium bath-house: [...]‌[...]AVET[...]‌[...]MCP[...]‌[...]ONIV[...]‌[...]VFVS[...]‌[...]. p.314 & fig.4.
  11. South Shields/Arbeia, Tyne & Wear (NZ 365679): buff-sandstone fragment found unstratified in 1989 within late-3rd/early-4th C. courtyard building: [...]‌[...]ED[...]‌[...]MM[...]‌[...]. p.315.
  12. Housesteads/Vercovicium, Northumberland (NY 790688): buff-sandstone building stone found 1990 in situ in outer face of S wall of fort: [...]ND[...]. p.315.
  13. Chesterholm/Vindolanda, Northumberland (NY 770663): buff-sandstone building stone found 1991 in situ in north-west corner-angle of fort: X. p.315.
  14. ibid.: buff-sandstone building stone found 1991 in situ in apse of bath-house: X. p.315.
  15. ibid.: buff-sandstone building stone found with #14: X. p.315.
  16. Birdoswald/Banna, Cumbria/Cumberland (NY 615663): buff-sandstone building stone found 1991 built into outbuildings N of Birdoswald Farm: (X); a cross within a circle. p.315 & fig.5 p.316.
  17. ibid.: buff-sandstone building stone found 1990 built into a large Hadrianic building in the praetentura: linear carving of horned male animal. p.316 & fig.6.
  18. Coombe Crag, Roman quarry, 3km W of Birdoswalds (NY 650591): buff-sandstone block in debris fallen from quarry face: SIΛ BLEI‌[horned animal figure]SVROS. pp.316/7 & fig.7.
  19. Hoddom, Dumfriesshire, 5km WSW of Birrens/Blatobulgium (NY 167729): red-sandstone slab fragment found in 1991: [...]VMIN[...] ‌ [...]TENTE D[...] ‌ [...]IC(or O)[...] ‌ [...]. p.317.
  20. ibid.: red-sandstone slab fragment found with #19: [...] ‌ [...] ‌ [...]VIIIAVG ‌ [...]XXIIPRI ‌ [...]F. p.318.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. NORFOLK Caistor St Edmund/Venta Icenorum (TG 230032): two conjoining pieces of a bronze military diploma found in 1989 outside S gate of Roman town; dated 91-105AD: [...]IN BR[...‌...]VI QV[...] • [...]MAI vacat. pp.320/21.
  1. TYNE AND WEAR [DURHAM] South Shields/Arbeia (NZ365679): oval lead sealing found in 1990 in demolition layer of Severan barrack-block: CVG; [C[ohors] V G[allorum]. p.323.


  1. FALSVM Little Chester/Derventio,Derbyshire, Pickford's Garage (SK 355375): building-stone found in 1988 excavations at Roman fort: [...]G ♠ IX ‌ [...]IT. p.323.