Britannia XXXIV (2003) Index

Main Articles

John Collingwood Bruce and the Study of Hadrian's WallDavid J. Breeze1
The Roman Siege of BurnswarkD.B. Campbell19!
The Haverfield Bequest, 1921-2000, and the Study of Roman BritainMalcolm Todd35
'The Girl in Question': a New Text from Roman LondonR.S.O. Tomlin41
The Tombstone of Laetus' Daughter: Cats in Gallo-Roman SculptureCatherine Johns53
Becoming Roman on the Berkshire Downs: the Evidence from Alfred's CastleC. Gosden & G. Lock65
Iconoclasm in Roman Britain?B. Croxford81
'Gnosticism' in Fourth-Century Britain: the Frampton Mosaics ReconsideredDominic Perring97
Re-use of Roman Stone in the Reedham Area of East Norfolk:Intimations of a Possible 'Lost' Roman FortJ.R.L. Allen, E.J. Rose & Michael Fulford129
The Rotary Querns from the Society of Antiquaries' Excavations at Silchester, 1890-1909Ruth Shaffrey143
Britons and Romans at Chatteris: Investigations at Langwood Farm, CambridgeshireChristopher Evans175


A Votive Head from West Wight by Jean Bagnall Smith, Martin Henig & Kevin Trott (265)
On the Date of the Title Britannicus Maximus of Septimius Severus and his Sons by Matthäus Heil (268)
Caligula and the Spoils of Ocean: a Rush for Riches in the Far North-West? by J.G.F. Hind (272)
A Roman Gold Phallic Pendant from Braintree, Essex by Catherine Johns & Philip J. Wise (274)
The Siting of Roman Corinium by Richard Reece (276)
The Claudian Invasion of Britain and the Cult of Victoria Britannica by Giles Standing (281)
The Rudston Venus Mosaic Revisited: a Spear-Bearing Lion? by R.J.A. Wilson (288)

Roman Britain in 2002

I - Sites Explored
by B.C. Burnham, F. Hunter & A.P. Fitzpatrick (293)


CARDIFF - (1) Cardiff, 9-11 Castle Street, Roman material (ST 180764): p.294.

CARMARTHENSHIRE - (1) Cynwyl Gaeo, Allt Aber-Mangoed, prehistoric/R-B polygonal enclosure found during aerial recon. (SN 6774 4345): p.294; (2) Llandovery, Llanfair Grange Residential Home, no finds within the fort (SN7699 3510): p.294; (3) Pumpsaint, Coronation Hall, gravel road surface within fort (SN 6565 4055): p.294; (4) Carmarthen, Roman road west of Carmarthen: E of Big Rath (SM 9852 1951), N of Big Rath (SM 9832 1970), E of Stember (SM 9762 2027): p.294.

GWYNEDD - (1) Roman Fort Environs Project Fluxgate Radiometric Surveys (by D. Hopewell and J. Burman): (a) Canovium/Caerhun, vicus N of fort (SH 7763 7037): p.295 & fig.2; (b) Llanfor, detailed plan of fort (SH 9375 3614): p.296 & fig.3 p.297; (4) Trawsfynydd, Dolbelydr Roman practice camp, discovered on A.P.'s in 2001 and examined 2002 (SH 7245 3747): p.296; (5) Maentwrog, Mur-llwyd Roman practice camp, discovered on A.P.'s in 2001 and examined 2002 (SH 7059 3910): p.296.

MONMOUTHSHIRE - (1) Venta Silurum/Caerwent, three sites investigated: (a) Plot 4, Highfield, Severn Valley ware (ST 486902), (b) 1 Lawrence Crescent, no finds (ST 473908), (c) Newhouse Farm, no Roman material (ST 477 905): pp.296/7; (2) Monmouth, four sites investigated: (a) Beaufort Court, Roman pottery incl. Samian (SO 5083 1284), (b) St John Street, Roman pottery (SO 508128), (c) 20 St James' Street, 1st C. Samian (SO 511130), (d) Monmouth Priory, tesserae & tegulae of high-status building (SO 5085 1300): pp.297/8; (3) Shirenewton, Roman pottery in fields SW & SE of village (ST 478935): p.298; (4) Trelech, Catbrook Road, R-B pottery recovered from molehills (SO 5015 1490): p.298.

NEATH PORT TALBOT - (1) Nidum/Neath, Neath Port Talbot College, mid-2nd C. pottery from vicus E of fort (SS 7483 9784): p.298.

NEWPORT - (1) Isca/Caerleon, eight sites investigated, various finds and structures recorded (ST3490): pp.298/9; (2) Nash Village, Roman pottery recovered (ST 343837): p.299.

PEMBROKESHIRE - (1) Castell Henllys, Nevern, R-B farmstead within I-A fort (SN 117391): p.299.

POWYS - (1) Caersws, Manthrig Lane, vicus building with denarius of Vespasian (SO 0306 9919): p.299.

VALE OF GLAMORGAN - (1) Ewenny, BeechCourt Farm, 2nd C. Samian fragment (Dr.37) recovered from prehistoric enclosure (SS 904766): p.299.



SHETLAND - (1) Old Scatness R-B cylindrical glass cup found in broch complex (HU 389106): p.300.

ORKNEY - (1) Mine Howe Roman pottery, glass and brooches found in Iron-Age ditched mound (HY 510060): p.300.

MORAY - (1) Birnie Severan hoards found in I-A/R-B open settlement (NJ 210585): p.300.

ABERDEENSHIRE - (1) Kintore, Henderson Drive, eight field-ovens recorded within temporary camp (NJ 7875 1600): p.300.

"ABERDEENSHIRE (1) Kintore, Henderson Drive (NJ 7875 1600): further large-scale excavation in advance of housing development within the temporary camp, to the east of that reported previously [Brit.XXXIII.285], uncovered a further 8 field ovens, one of which contained a broken quernstone." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.300.)

ABERDEEN CITY - (1) Tillydrone Motte found to be Iron-Age palisaded homestead containing a sherd of Antonine Samian (NJ 936088): p.300.

"ABERDEEN CITY (1) Tillydrone Motte (NJ 936 088): excavation of the supposed motte showed it was an Iron-Age palisaded homestead; a sherd of Antonine samian (Dr. 31) was found." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.300.)

ANGUS - (1) Inverquharity resistivity survey of fortlet and camp verify size estimates (NO 405581): pp.300-302 & fig.4; (2) Ardownie decorated trulla found in interconnected souterrains (NO 494337): p.302.

"ANGUS (1) Inverquharity (NO 405 581): resistivity survey over the fortlet and part of the nearby camp (FIG.4) revealed details of the north-western area and the fortlet's outer ditch circuit. Earlier size estimates [Maxwell & Wilson, pp.14/15] are accurate, with less lost to erosion than feared. The supposed annexe crosses the fortlet ditches and has angular corners, casting doubt on its identification. Several more prehistoric sites were located within the complex. ..." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) pp.300-302 & fig.4)

PERTH AND KINROSS - (1) Byres Roman road to Cargil not found on expected line (NO 129329): p.302; (2) Peel late Roman pottery found in ditched enclosure identified on resistivity survey attached to Gask signal station (NO 060232): p.302; (3) Ardoch Fortuna intaglio casual find inside W rampart (NN 8387 0998): p.302; (4) Raith resistivity survey and aerial photography of rectilinear enclosure surrounding Gask signal-tower (NO 932185): p.302; (5) Carpow A.P.'s reveal possible souterrain in fortress praetentura (NO 207179): p.302.

"PERTH AND KINROSS ... (4) Raith (NO 932 185): resistivity survey and air photo rectification [by Dr D.J. Woolliscroft, who sent details] suggest the rectilinear feature surrounding the Gask tower is too small (at 31 m by 27 m) to be a fortlet as previously argued [in D.J. Woolliscroft, 'Signalling and the design of the Gask Ridge system', PSAS 123 (1993), 291-313, esp. 297-9]. ..." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.302)

FALKIRK - (1) Lochlands construction work removed all traces of the temporary camps (NS 8549 8163): p.302; (2) Wester Carmuirs Hadrianic metal-detector finds (NS 852806): p.302.

"FALKIRK (1) Lochlands (NS 8549 8163): unsupervised construction work removed all traces of the temporary camps over a sizeable area [for a map of the complex see G.B. Bailey, 'Excavations on the Roman temporary camps at the Three Bridges, Camelon, Falkirk', PSAS 130 (2000), 469-89, illus. 1]. Subsequent survey [for Falkirk Museum under Mr G. Bailey, who sent details] recorded three ditch sections from two known camps and a field oven. A series of V-shaped gullies, typically 0.3 m deep, were noted but are difficult to interpret from isolated sections. ..." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.302) "FALKIRK ... (2) Wester Carmuirs (NS 852 806): metal-detecting around the temporary camp produced an enamelled mount and a sestertius of Hadrian [Finds examined by courtesy of Mr G. Bailey; they are now in the Falkirk Museum]." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.302)


FALKIRK - (1) Veluniate/Carriden W annexe ditch located (NT 0237 8078): p.303; (2) Bo'ness, Carndene House, Wall not located on line indicated on O.S. maps (NT 0105 8129): p.303; (3) Mumrills (a) Polmont Road, Laurieston, annexe/fort ditch intersection and clay-lined "aqueduct" (NS 9172 7936); (b) fieldwalking on fort produced flue-tiles and Hadrianic sestertius (NS 918793): p.303; (4) Falkirk (a) sewer draining into Goat Burn outside SW angle (NS 8860 7971); (b) butt-end of ditch found E of West Burn (NS 8855 7983): p.303; (5) Seabegs Wood possible traces of counterscarp bank found (NS 815794): p.303.

NORTH LANARKSHIRE - (1) Cumbernauld, Carrickstone, Portland Road, suspected Roman altarstone (NS 754761): p.303; (2) Dullatur no finds S of Wall (NS 749770): p.303.

EAST DUNBARTONSHIRE - (1) Kirkintilloch, Peel Park, inconclusive results (NS 651740): p.304; (2) Bearsden excavations on E rampart and annexe recovered "an extensive assemblage of pottery" (NS 5455 7206): p.304; (3) Castlehill rectangular sculptured slab fragment in farm building (NS 525727): p.304.

WEST DUNBARTONSHIRE - (1) Duntocher (a) Duntocher Primary School, no finds (NS 491728); (b) Golden Hill Daycare Centre, no finds (NS 4994 7242): p.304.


RENFREWSHIRE - (1) Whitemoss inconclusive findings (): p.304.

NORTH AYRSHIRE - (1) Netherhall, Largs proposed Roman road not found (NS 2045 6064): p.304.

SOUTH LANARKSHIRE - (1) Carstairs Junction, Woodside Nursery, nothing found on line on Roman road E of Castledykes (NS 950446): p.304; (2) Castledykes lead lamp found fieldwalking E of fort (NS 930443): p.305.

WEST LOTHIAN - (1) Linlithgow Palace mortaria sherd evidence of Roman activity (NT 002773): p.305.

CITY OF EDINBURGH - (1) Balerno, Boll o'Bere, suspected Roman road not found (NT 133658): p.305; (2) Cramond inconclusive results (NT 189768): p.305.

MIDLOTHIAN - (1) Wester Cowden line of Dere Street not confirmed (NT 3500 6730): p.305.

EAST LOTHIAN - (1) Phantassie Roman brooches and Samian found in I-A settlement (NT 5961 7688): p.305.

SCOTTISH BORDERS - (1) Innerleithen no finds within camp (NT 331361): p.305; (2) Trimontium/Newstead (a) Broomhill, line of Dere Street found E of fort (NT 575345); (b) Broomhill temporary camp, restivity survey located ditch and titulus entrance (NT 576341); Broomhill Stables, no Roman remains (NT 576338) pp.305/6; (3) Falla Knowe unfinished trumpet brooch in I-A settlement (NT 747150): p.306.

"SCOTTISH BORDERS (1) Innerleithen (NT 331 361): evaluation within the temporary camp failed to identify any Roman remains. ..." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.305) "SCOTTISH BORDERS ... (2) Newstead (Trimontium, NT 571 344): (a) Broomhill (NT 576 338): a linear mound running broadly north-south to the east of the fort complex has been identified as the likely agger of Dere Street. Where exposed it has a stone-rich construction, more substantial to the base, with in places disturbed curbs. The mound approaches the river close to the post-Medieval bridge. (b) Broomhill temporary camp (NT 576 341): limited resistivity survey east of the cottages located the ditch and titulus of the camp on a NNE-SSW alignment. (c) Broomhill Stables (NT 576 338): a watching-brief on pipe and cable trenches some 600 m south-east of the fort uncovered no remains." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) pp.305/6)

DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY - (1) Annan Hill excavation of E ditch and gate of temporary camp (NY 192655): p.306; (2) Carzield no Roman remains (NX 9675 8190): p.306.

"DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY (1) Annan Hill (NY 192 655): excavation examined a stretch of the east ditch of the temporary camp, including part of the gate. Immediately inside the ditch undated features included a length of V-profile ditch (1.5 m wide and 0.6 m deep), with a cobble fill) and some sub-circular cobble-filled hollows. ..." (Britannia xxxiv (2003) p.306)



TYNE AND WEAR - (1) South Shields/Arbeia ...

"" (Britannia xxxiv (2003) )

II Inscriptions
by R.S.O. Tomlin & M.W.C. Hassall (361)


  1. Londinium/London, Poultry (TQ 3258 8110): irregular rectangle of sheet lead incribed in cursive script on one side, found in 1994 twice folded, now at the Museum of London: PLΛVTIVS NOBILIΛ‌NVS Λ[.]RIIL SΛTVR‌NINVS DOMITIΛ ΛTTI‌OLΛ IIT SI QVI A FVERE. p.361 & figs.1/2.
  2. Londinium/London, Guildhall Yard Roman Amphitheatre (TQ 324813): irregular rectangle of sheet lead found in 1992 in the fill of a drain within the arena, inscribed on one side in capitals (text restored): [D]EAE DEA[NA]E DONO ‌ CAPITVLAREM ET FAS‌[C]IAM MINUS PARTE ‌ TERTIA SI QVIS HOC FECI[T] ‌ [S]I P[V]ER SI [P]VELLA S[I] ‌ [S]ER[VUS] S[I LIBER] ‌ DON[O EVM] NEC P[ER] ‌ ME [VI]V[ERE] POSSIT. p.362 & fig.3.
  3. Ibid. irregular piece of sheet lead found in drain fill with #2, inscribed both sides in cursive letters: a) VIN MO ‌ MVBOCIMIVI, b) SVNXIIΛ ‌ ΛROTΛI. p.363 & figs.4/5.
  4. Ibid. irregular lead sheet rectangle inscribed and folded, found on the arena floor: [text illegible]. p.364.
  5. Londinium/London, Tabard Street, Southwark (TQ 3265 7965): white marble slab broken at bottom found in 2002 in a pit between two Romano-British temples deliberately buried beneath a tile: NVM ♦ AVGG ‌ DEOMARTICA ‌ MVLO ♦ TIBERINI ‌ VSCELERIANVS ‌ ♦ C ♦ BELL ♦ ‌ ♦ MORITIX ♦ ‌ LONDINIENSI ‌ VM ♦ ‌ PRIMVS [...] ‌ [...] VA [...] ‌ [...]. p.364 & figs.6/7.
  6. Arbeia/South Shields, Tyne & Wear (NZ 366679): grey sandstone building-stone found in 2000 in collapsed wall of Severan granary: MB. p.365 & fig.8.
  7. Barcombe Hill, Northumberland (NY 776662): quarry face inscription found in 2001 on SW summit of hill overlooking Chesterholm/Vindolanda: XIII. p.366 & figs.9/10.
  8. Vindolanda/Chesterholm, Northumberland (NY 770663): decorated buff-sandstone altar found in 1998 re-used within the praetorium of the fort; the inscription is very worn: IOM • ...NIO PRA ...TOR... C...OR... ... ...NC... ... ORVM V S L M. pp.366/7 & figs.11/2.
  9. Ibid. small grey sandstone altar found 4 metres down a Severan well within the S rampart: DEOHV ‌ VTR[...] ‌ N[...] ‌ VEGV ‌ VOLS. p.368 & fig.13.
  10. Ibid. small dark-buff sandstone altar found in 2001 within a late-1st C. temple in the vicus: DEO ‌ V[...]II[...]. p.369 & fig.14.
  11. Ibid. small buff sandstone altar: DIBVS ‌ VITIRI. ‌ VS MΛ. ‌ MVS V. ‌ .... p.370 & fig.15.
  12. Ibid. base of small buff sandstone altar found on the floor of a vicus building, inscribed on base: V S L M. p.370 & fig.16.
  13. Duntocher, Antonine Wall (NS 494727): inscribed Roman stone found in 1775 in the village: LVCIVS. p.371.
  14. Pontefract, East Hardwick, West Yorkshire (SE 4599 1901): top part of cylindrical gritstone milestone found in 2002 on line of Roman road between Doncaster and Tadcaster: IMPC ‌ MΛNNI ‌ OFL[...] ‌ .... p.371 & fig.17.

only items of military or special note are listed here

  1. Londinium/London, 1 Poultry (TQ 3258 8110): stilus writing tablet of silver fir found in 1994 W of the Walbrook stream, inscribed with 11 lines of cursive text: "Vegetus, assistant slave of Montanus the slave of the August Emperor and sometime assistant slave of Iucundus, has bought and received by mancipium the girl Fortunata, or by whatever name she is known, by nationality a Diablintian, from [...] for six hundred denarii. And that the girl in question is transferred in good health, that she is warranted not to be liable to wander or run away, but that if anyone lays claim to the girl in question or to any share in her [...] in the wax tablet which he has written and sworn by the genius of the Emperor Caesar [...]" [translation from Britannia xxxiv]. pp.373/4.
  1. Great Dunham, Norfolk (TF8714): fragment of copper-alloy military diplomata inscribed both sides, found by metal detectorist Neil Foster in 2002, now in Norwich Castle Museum [text restored]: a) [...] et (ala) I Hispano]r(um) Campa[gon(um) et IA[...‌... m]illiari[a ...], b) [... aut siqui caelibes essen]t cum [iis quas postea ‌ duxissent dumtaxat si]nguli sin[gulas ‌ imp(eratore) Caesare] divi Ner[vae f(ilio) Nerva traiano Aug(usto) Ger(manico) II ‌ Sex(to) Iu]lio F[rontino II co(n)s(ulibus) ‌ ... Pan]nonior[um ...]. pp.375/6.
  1. Bremenium/High Rochester (NY8398): rectangular lead sealing found in 2002 "near the fort": CIVΛ, "Cohors Primae Vardullorum". p.376.