The Ravenna Cosmography

The Section on Hadrian's Wall

During the seventh century, a priest at Ravenna in northern Italy compiled a road map - basically a tabular list of Roman way-stations - based on a collection of older source-material.

Places Named on the Ravenna Map

Modern Place-Name
SerdunoSEGEDVNVMWallsend, Tyne & Wear
CondecorCONDERCVMBenwell, Tyne & Wear
VindovalaVINDOBALARudchester, Northumberland
OnnoONNVMHalton Chesters, Northumberland
CelunnoCILVRNVMChesters, Northumberland
BrocolitiBROCOLITIACarrawburgh, Northumberland
VelurtionVERCOVICIVMHousesteads, Northumberland
EsicaAESICAGreat Chesters, Northumberland
BannaBANNACastlesteads, Cumbria
UxelludamoVXELODVNVMStanwix, Cumbria
AvalavaABALLAVABurgh by Sands, Cumbria
MaiaMAIABowness on Solway, Cumbria
FanocodiFANVM COCIDIBewcastle,
VindolandeVINDOLANDAChesterholm, Northumberland
MagnisMAGNISCarvoran, Northumberland
GabaglandaCAMBOGLANNABirdoswald, Cumbria
BibraBIBRABeckfoot, Cumbria
AlaunaALAVNAMaryport, Cumbria
GabrocentioGABROSENTVMMoresby, Cumbria
JuliocenonTVNNOCELVMNr. Beckermet, Calder Bridge, Cumbria
BremeniumBREMENIVMHigh Rochester, Northumberland

Notable Omissions and Other Strangeness

The first twelve places are all forts on the Wall, listed from east to west, but with two notable omissions; PONS AELIVS (Newcastle upon Tyne), the original eastern terminus of the Wall, which should be listed between Segedunum and Condercum, and CONCAVATA (Drumburgh, Cumbria), is missing from between Maia and Aballava (this is also the case on the Rudge Cup). Camboglanna is also not included among the Wall forts, but appears in the Stanegate list.

Following the forward-positioned fort at Fanum Cocidi, the list continues with the older forts along the Stanegate, where there are two more notable omissions; CORSTOPITVM (Corbridge, Tyne & Wear) and LVGVVALIVM (Carlisle, Cumbria). In addition, Camboglanna is placed here among the forts on the Stanegate, whereas it should be included among the forts on the Wall itself.

After the controversial Gabaglanda entry, there follows the names of three forts which belong to the Western Sea Defences beyond Maia at the western terminus of the Wall itself. Next comes the inidentified IVLIOCENON entry, another, otherwise unknown fort in the Western Sea Defences.

The list is completed by another forward-positioned fort, Bremenium on Dere Street, though Habitancum which lies on this same road between Bremenium and Onnum on the Wall, is anomalously omitted.