Roman Military Campaigns

Of Gnaeus Julius Agricola in Britain

Gnaeus Julius Agricola - Governor of Britain 77/8AD to 83/84

Agricolan Foundations in Wales and the Marches

NameN.G.Ref.Description
DEVA (Chester)SJ4066legionary fortress Legio XX Valeria.
VIROCONIVM (Wroxeter, Shropshire)SJ5608reduced strength fortress Vex Legio XX Valeria.
ISCA SILVRVM (Caerleon, Gwent)ST3390legionary fortress Legio II Augusta.
LEVOBRINTA (Forden Gaer, Powys)SO2098fort
Caersws, PowysSO0292fort
Trawsgoed, DyfedSN6772fort
Castell Collen, PowysSO0562fort
CICVCIVM (Brecon Gaer, Y Gaer, Powys)SO0029fort
Coelbren, West GlamorganSN8510fort
NIDVM (Neath, West Glamorgan)SS7497fort
Cardiff, South GlamorganST1876fort
BVRRIVM (Usk, Gwent)SO3700fort
Caerphilly, Mid GlamorganST1688fort
gelligaer, Mid GlamorganST1397fort
Pen-y-Darren, Mid GlamorganSO0506fort
Caergai, GwyneddSH8731fort
Tomen-y-Mur, GwyneddSH7038fort
Bryn-y-Gefeiliau, GwyneddSH7457fort
CANOVIVM (Caerhun, Gwynedd)SH7770fort
Pen Llystyn, GwyneddSH4844fort
SEGONTIVM (Caernarfon, Gwynedd)SH4862fort

Agricolan Fortifications in Northern England

NameN.G.Ref.Description
EBVRACVM (York)SE6052legionary fortress Legio IX Hispana.
LINDVM (Lincoln)SK9771legionary fortress Legio II Adiutrix.
PETVARIA (Brough-on-Humber)SE9326fort
DERVENTIO (Malton)SE7971large fort
CORSTOPITVM (Corbridge)NY9864fort and storage depot

Notably, no permanent Agricolan fortifications have been identified in the Lake District, which may point to Agricola (or one of his immediate predecessors) having obtained a treaty with the Carvetii tribe of Cumbria.

Agricolan Encampments in Scotland

NameN.G.Ref.Description
TRIMONTIVM (Newstead, Borders)NT5734large fort in the Tweed Valley
Milton (Dumfries & Galloway)NT0901large fort in Annandale
CAMELON (Camelon, Central)NS8680large fort on the Forth
Dalswinton (Dumfries & Galloway)NX9384large fort in Nithsdale
Castledykes (Strathclyde)NS9244large fort in Clydesdale
Glenlochar (Dumfries & Galloway)NX7364large fort
Oakwood (Borders)NT4224fort
Easter Happrew (Borders)NT1940fort
Barochan (Strathclyde)NS4169fort
BLATOBVLGIVM (Birrens, Dumfries & Galloway)NY2175fort
Mollins (Strathclyde)NS7171small fort
Gatehouse of Fleet (Dumfries & Galloway)NX5957fortlet
Glenluce (Dumfries & Galloway)NX1956Marching Camp

Possible Agricolan Forts in Scotland

Evidence of First-Century Occupation at Other Scottish Forts

Evidence \ Site (clickable) Castlecary Cadder Mumrills Balmuildy Kirkintilloch Old Kilpatrick
1st-century glassXX
1st-century samian-wareXX
1st-century bronze coinsXXXX
'pre-Hadrianic' potteryXXXX

The evidence tabulated above would certainly seem to support an Agricolan foundation for Castlecary, probably also for Mumrills, Cadder and Balmuildy, and though the sparse evidence at the other two sites may testify Agricolan occupation, any such claims should be treated with caution.

Two fortlets discovered from the air at Croy Hill and Bar Hill appeared to lie beneath the Antonine forts and were thought on this basis to be Agricolan. Subsequent fieldwork at each of these sites have since confirmed that both fortlets actually post-date the Antonine Wall forts, and have thus been assigned to the re-occupation of this northernmost frontier during the early 160AD's.

Agricolan Forts North of the Forth/Clyde

It is possible, indeed probable, that Agricola built no permanent forts north of the Forth/Clyde isthmus. However, there is evidence of two phases of first-century occupation in two forts along the Roman road into Tayside at Ardoch and Strageath. The former fort may have been founded during Agricola's third campaign season and the latter during the sixth, though it is equally likely that each was built by Agricola's successor Sallustius Lucullus.

Agricolan Marching Camps in Scotland

Stracathro Type

Dalswinton | Castledykes | Menteith | Dalginross | Stracathro | Ythan Wells | Auchinhove

Medium Camps (30acres - 12ha)

Dunblane | Ardoch | Dornock | Bonnytown | Cardean | Finavon

Large Camps (115acres - 46ha)

Dunning | Abernethy | Carpow

Click Here to Continue with the Northern Military Campaigns

The main sources used in compiling the above information were: The Northern Frontiers of Roman Britain by David J. Breeze, and Britons and the Roman Army by Dr. Grace Simpson. In addition, several copies of the essential Ordnance Survey Map and Guide - Roman Britain were consulted. Large amounts of caffeine were also imbibed.

For more information on Agricola see: The Fifth Year of Agricola's Campaigns, by Nicholas Reed, in Britannia II (1971) pp.143-148.