Type: Iron Mine, Mine, Settlement
|Iter XIII: NE (11) to Ariconivm
Iter XIII: SW (11) to Bvrrivm (Usk, Gwent)
River Wye: S (16) to Venta Silvrvm (Caerwent, Gwent)
The only classical reference which identifies the Roman name for Monmouth is the Antonine Itinerary, which contains details of many of the major trade routes in the Roman empire during the late second century. The British section of this document lists fifteen such routes, one of which deals with the road through Monmouth. The thirteenth itinerary is titled "the route from Isca to Calleva", and details the road between the fortress of Legio II Augusta at ISCA SILVRVM (Caerleon, Gwent) and CALLEVA AREBATVM (Silchester, Hampshire), the tribal capital of the Atrebates. The name Blestium appears near the beginning of Iter XIII, lying a uniform 11 miles from BVRRIVM (Usk, Gwent) and 11 miles from ARICONIVM (Weston under Penyard, Hereford & Worcester), and the reported distances place this Roman station squarely in Monmouth.
The name is possibly derived from the Greek word βλαστος (Blastos), meaning 'shoot, sprout' or 'scion, offspring', the place-name Blestium perhaps being translated something along the lines 'The Offshoot Settlement'. This may be in reference to the major settlement at Ariconium, which is thought to be the main administrative centre for the iron industries in the Monmouth area.
Graham Webster in his superb work Rome Against Caratacus classified Monmouth as "a possible fort site near a later settlement", and also pointed out the possible military use of a trackway north-west from here to "a postulated fort site with no evidence" at Pontrilas. A.L.F. Rivet in his Town and Country in Roman Britain also argued in favour of a Roman fort sited at Monmouth, but sadly however, apart from a few coins, no Roman remains have ever been found to substantiate these scholarly arguments.
Monmouth lies on the border between two native British tribes, the Silures in Glamorgan and Gwent to the west, and the Dobunni in Gloucestershire to the east. It is very likely that the settlement was associated with neither of these peoples, and was under military jurisdiction. The lack of any Roman building stones suggests that the living conditions here were very poor, any buildings being of timber construction at best, a situation more appropriate to a slave compound than a civil settlement.
Aside from the Iron-Mines at Monmouth itself, there are others situated to the south-east at Scowles (SO5708) and near the Villa/Temple complex at Lydney Park (SO6202), both in Gloucestershire, also at Whitchurch (SO5417) near the Huntsham Villa (SO5617) to the north-east, and at Peterstow (SO5624) near Ariconium further north, these latter sites all lying within Hereford & Worcester.
The town was the later home of the famed historian Geoffrey of Monmouth, who wrote his History of the British People here in the early-twelfth century.