NGRef: NT6921
OSMap: LR74
Type: Fort, Camp

Roads
NW (12) to Newstead (Newstead, Borders)
SE (10) to Chew Green (Northumberland)
Dere Street: NW (7) to Maxton
Dere Street: NW (8) to St Boswells

Building Inscription from the Cappuck Fort

LEG XX V V FEC

"The Twentieth Legion Valiant and Victorious made this."

(RIB 2119)

"Cappuck (Fig. 8) is a little fort barely an acre in extent (about 200 by 240 feet internally) with a clay rampart on a cobble foundation 24 feet wide on the east, the weakest side, and 8 feet elsewhere. On the north and west is a double ditch 24 feet wide with no berm ; on the south a single 18-foot ditch with a 9-foot berm ; on the east a 22-foot berm followed by three ditches with intervals between them. The rampart, and the stone inner buildings, date from the second century, but there was a Flavian fort here - the objects found prove that - and it probably had the same ditch system and similar ramparts.¹
P.S.A. Scot., xlvi. In so small a fort, the ratio 200 to 250 men per acre no longer holds, for obvious reasons." (Collingwood, pp.32-4)

There are three inscriptions on stone recorded in the R.I.B. from Cappuck, all of which are shown and translated on this page; an altar to Jupiter dedicated by an auxiliary garrison unit (RIB 2117 infra), another altarstone on which the name of the deity has been lost (RIB 2118 infra), and a building inscription recording the legionary unit responsible for the fort's construction (RIB 2119 supra).

Altar Dedicated to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus

I O M VEXILATIO RETORVM GAESAT Q C A IVL SEVER TRIB

"For Jupiter Best and Greatest, the detachment withdrawn from the Gaesatae¹ commanded by the tribune Aulus Julius Severus [made this offering]."

(RIB 2117; altarstone)

  1. The Gaesatae were a tribe from the borders of the Rhone, who joined the Gallic Senones under their warlord Brennus in the sacking of Rome in either 290 or 287BC.

Altarstone to an Unknown God

... COH I FID VARDVL C R M EQ ET G QVINTIVS SEVERVS TRIB COH EIVSDEM DOM CAMIL RAVENNA V S L L M

"[...] the First Cohort of Faithful Vardulli, one-thousand strong, part-mounted, Citizens of Rome, and Gaius Quintius Severus, of the Camillian voting tribe from Ravenna, tribune of the selfsame cohort, willingly gladly and deservedly fulfil their vow."

(RIB 2118; altarstone)

The Dateable Pottery Evidence

The pottery evidence from the Cappuck fort shows occupation throughout the first and second centuries. There are two sherds of South Gaulish Form 29 dated to the Agricolan period, three pieces of South Gaulish Form 37 dated to Flavian-Trajanic times, and Antonine occupation is attested by three potters stamps all represented on single sherds: Casurius Form 37, Criciro Form 37 and Ruffus Form 33. Another single piece of South Gaulish Form 27 samian bore the stamp ]OF, which cannot be identified.

The Temporary Marching Camps

There are several temporary marching camps in the close proximity of the fort, two to the north, two to the west and another to the south, all in the Borders Region (at NT6820). These are all dealt with on a separate page for Ulston Moor.

See: The Roman Occupations of Scotland by B.R. Hartley in Britannia iii (1972) pp.1-55;
The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965);
The Archaeology of Roman Britain by R.G. Collingwood (Methuen, London, 1930).
All English translations, including any inherent mistakes, are my own.

Click here for a map of Cappuck from StreetMap.co.uk