Appendix I

Roman Tabular Data

The Roman Calendar

Days of the Week

Dies = DayAssociated Deity/Celestial Object
dies Solis 'Sun day' = SundayPhoebus, the Sun Apollo.
dies Lunae 'Moon day' = MondayLuna, Selene, Delia or Phoebe, Diana the Moon.
dies Martis 'the day of Mars' = TuesdayMars, master of Flight and Terror.
(compare French Mardi)
dies Mercuris 'the day of Mercury' = WednesdayMercury, swift Hermes, Father of Astrology.
(compare French Mercredi)
dies Iovis 'the day of Jupiter' = ThursdayJupiter or Jove, ruler of all the Gods.
dies Veneris 'the day of Venus' = FridayVenus Astarte, both Hesperos and Lucifer.
(compare French Vendredi)
dies Saturni 'the day of Saturn' = SaturdaySaturn, of the 'Golden Age'.

Months of the Year

Mensis = MonthOrigin of Name
Januarius = JanuaryGod Janus
Februarius = FebruaryFebrua Festivals
Martius = MarchWar God Mars
Aprilis = AprilGoddess Aprilis of the Etruscans
Maius = MayEarth Goddess Maia
Junius = JuneGoddess Juno
Julius = JulyBirth of the Divine Julius Caesar; originally quintillis
Augustus = AugustBirth of the Divine Augustus Caesar; originally sextilis
September'The Seventh Month'
October'The Eighth Month'
November'The Ninth Month'
December'The Tenth Month'
For further information on the Roman calendar: percute hic!

Timetable of Roman Games and Festivals

The Roman Numeric System

Roman Numerals

Latin = ArabicDerivation of Roman Figure
I = 1a single digit
V = 5graphic representation of five fingers
X = 10graphic of two hands joined together
L = 50adapted from a Chalcidic sign
C = 100adapted from a Chalcidic sign;
also the first letter of the word for one-hundred, centum.
D = 500half of the Chalcidic sign , which represented one-thousand.
M = 1,000the first letter of the word for one-thousand, mille.
For further information on Roman numerals: percute hic!

Latin Numeral Translator JavaScript

Imperial Roman Currency

Primary Roman Denominations

as from aes 'copper' (copper)
asses = 1 sestertius 'two and a half' (brass)
4 sestertii = 1 denarius 'containing ten' (silver)
25 denarii = 1 aureus 'golden' (gold)
For further information on Roman coinage: percute hic!

Roman Linear and Volumetric Measures

Units of Length

1 uncia 'twelfth part' = approx. 1 inch
12 unciae 'inches' = 1 pes 'foot' = 29.59cm
5 pedes = 1 passus 'pace' = 1.48m
125 passuus = 1 stadium 'race-track'
8 stadia = mille passuum 'one-thousand paces' = 1 Roman Mile = 1.48km = 1,620yards

Units of Area

100 pedes quadrati 'square feet' = 1 scripulum
144 scripula = 1 actus quadratus
2 actus quadrati = 1 iugerum
2 iugera = 1 heredium
100 heredia = 1 centuria

Units of Weight

scripulum 'scruple, a small weight'
4 scripulae = 1 sextula 'a sixth part'
6 sextulae = 1 uncia 'a twelfth part' = approx. 1 ounce
12 unciae 'ounces' = 1 libra = 1 Roman pound = approx 11½ oz. or ¾ lb. avoirdupois.

Units of Volume or Capacity

4 cochlearia 'snailshells' = 1 cyathus 'ladle, wine-measure' = ?
12 cyathi = 1 sextarius 'one-sixth measure' = approx. 1 pint
6 sextarii = 1 congius¹8 sextarii = 1 semodius 'half-modius'
8 congii = 1 amphora²2 semodii = 1 modius³ = approx. 1 peck
20 amphorae = 1 culleus
  1. Related to the word congiarium, a largess for soldiers, usually in the form of a measure of corn, oil, wine etc.
  2. An amphora was a large, two-handled earthenware jar of a standard size, used to transport foodstuffs such as olive-oil, cereals and wine.
  3. An interesting example of a modius measure was found outside the fort at Magnis (Carvoran, Northumberland) on Hadrian's Wall.

Bibliographical Links

The information on this page has been derived from a number of sources, including:
The Romans : An Introduction by Antony Kamm (Routledge, London, 1995);
The Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary Ed. by James Morwood (OUP, Oxford, 1995);
Revised Latin Primer by Benjamin Hall Kennedy (Longmans, London, 1953);
Chronology of the Ancient World by E.J. Bickerman (Thames & Hudson, London, 1980);
Roman Coinage in Britain by P.J. Casey (Shire Archaeology, 1994);